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Cole Umemura
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Ephesians
A phrasing of the entire book of Ephesians.
#Ephesians
Published May 15th, 2021
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Eph. 1:1-14
Eph. 1:15-23
Eph. 2:1-10
Eph. 2:11-22
Eph. 3:1-13
Eph 3:14-21
Eph. 4:1-6
Eph. 4:7-16
Eph. 4:17-24
Eph. 4:25-5:2
Eph. 5:3-14
Eph. 5:15-21
Eph. 5:21-33
Eph. 6:1-9
Eph. 6:10-20
Eph. 6:21-24
Eph. 1:1-14
editing
NT
Ephesians 1:1-14
esv
sbl
Greeting and Blessing
Paul,
Παῦλος ἀπόστολος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ τοῖς ἁγίοις τοῖς οὖσιν [ἐν Ἐφέσῳ] καὶ πιστοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ·
an apostle
Explanation
of Christ Jesus
Source
by the will
Means
of God,
Possessive
To the saints
Destination
who are in Ephesus,
and are faithful
in Christ Jesus:
Context
Grace to you and peace
χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.
from God our Father
and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Prayer of Blessing to God: Four Purposes
Praise Given to God
Blessed be the God and Father
Εὐλογητὸς ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ εὐλογήσας ἡμᾶς ἐν πάσῃ εὐλογίᾳ πνευματικῇ ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις ἐν Χριστῷ,
of our Lord Jesus Christ,
Relationship
who has blessed us
in Christ
with every spiritual blessing
Manner
in the heavenly places,
Location
Purpose of Predestination
even as he chose us
καθὼς ἐξελέξατο ἡμᾶς ἐν αὐτῷ πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἁγίους καὶ ἀμώμους κατενώπιον αὐτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ,
Ground
in him
before the foundation
Temporal
of the world,
Objective
that we should be holy
Purpose
and blameless
before him.
In love
he predestined us
προορίσας ἡμᾶς εἰς υἱοθεσίαν διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς αὐτόν, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ,
for adoption
as sons
through Jesus Christ,
Agency
according to the purpose
Standard/Ground
of his will,
Epexegetical
to the praise
εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ ἧς ἐχαρίτωσεν ἡμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ,
of his glorious grace,
with which he has blessed us
in the Beloved.
Purpose of Redemption
In him
ἐν ᾧ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν διὰ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτοῦ, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν παραπτωμάτων, κατὰ τὸ πλοῦτος τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ
we have redemption
through his blood,
the forgiveness
of our trespasses,
according to the riches
Standard/Ground
of his grace,
Attributed
which he lavished upon us,
ἧς ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς ἡμᾶς ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ φρονήσει
in all wisdom
and insight
to us
γνωρίσας ἡμῖν τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν αὐτοῦ ἣν προέθετο ἐν αὐτῷ
making known ... the mystery
of his will,
according to his purpose,
Standard
which he set forth
in Christ
as a plan for the fullness
εἰς οἰκονομίαν τοῦ πληρώματος τῶν καιρῶν, ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι τὰ πάντα ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ, τὰ ἐπὶ τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· ἐν αὐτῷ,
Content
of time,
to unite all things
in him,
things in heaven
and things on earth.
Purpose of Inheritance
In him
ἐν ᾧ καὶ ἐκληρώθημεν προορισθέντες κατὰ πρόθεσιν τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐνεργοῦντος κατὰ τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ,
we have obtained an inheritance,
having been predestined
Gound
according to the purpose
of him
who works all things
according to the counsel
of his will,
so that we ... might be to the praise
εἰς τὸ εἶναι ἡμᾶς εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης αὐτοῦ τοὺς προηλπικότας ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ·
of his glory.
who were the first to hope
in Christ
Purpose of Salvation and Sealing
In him
ἐν ᾧ καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀκούσαντες τὸν λόγον τῆς ἀληθείας, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς σωτηρίας ὑμῶν, ἐν ᾧ καὶ πιστεύσαντες ἐσφραγίσθητε τῷ πνεύματι τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τῷ ἁγίῳ,
when you heard the word
of truth,
Attributive or Contents
the gospel
of your salvation,
Contents
and believed
Result
in him,
you also, ... were sealed
with the promised Holy Spirit,
Mean
who is the guarantee
ὅ ἐστιν ἀρραβὼν τῆς κληρονομίας ἡμῶν, εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως, εἰς ἔπαινον τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ.
of our inheritance
until we acquire possession
of it,
to the praise
of his glory.
NET: For he chose us in Christ
"good pleasure" according to Arnold: see p 83c
"graced us" according to Arnold p. 84
Arnold takes it as objective or product "The gospel produces your salvation"
"down payment" -- God will complete the transaction, but has given a down payment as a promise
Παῦλος ἀπόστολος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ τοῖς ἁγίοις τοῖς οὖσιν [ἐν Ἐφέσῳ] καὶ πιστοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ·
χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.
Εὐλογητὸς ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ εὐλογήσας ἡμᾶς ἐν πάσῃ εὐλογίᾳ πνευματικῇ ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις ἐν Χριστῷ,
καθὼς ἐξελέξατο ἡμᾶς ἐν αὐτῷ πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἁγίους καὶ ἀμώμους κατενώπιον αὐτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ,
προορίσας ἡμᾶς εἰς υἱοθεσίαν διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς αὐτόν, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ,
εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ ἧς ἐχαρίτωσεν ἡμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ,
ἐν ᾧ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν διὰ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτοῦ, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν παραπτωμάτων, κατὰ τὸ πλοῦτος τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ
ἧς ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς ἡμᾶς ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ φρονήσει
γνωρίσας ἡμῖν τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν αὐτοῦ ἣν προέθετο ἐν αὐτῷ
εἰς οἰκονομίαν τοῦ πληρώματος τῶν καιρῶν, ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι τὰ πάντα ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ, τὰ ἐπὶ τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· ἐν αὐτῷ,
ἐν ᾧ καὶ ἐκληρώθημεν προορισθέντες κατὰ πρόθεσιν τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐνεργοῦντος κατὰ τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ,
εἰς τὸ εἶναι ἡμᾶς εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης αὐτοῦ τοὺς προηλπικότας ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ·
ἐν ᾧ καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀκούσαντες τὸν λόγον τῆς ἀληθείας, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς σωτηρίας ὑμῶν, ἐν ᾧ καὶ πιστεύσαντες ἐσφραγίσθητε τῷ πνεύματι τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τῷ ἁγίῳ,
ὅ ἐστιν ἀρραβὼν τῆς κληρονομίας ἡμῶν, εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως, εἰς ἔπαινον τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ.
phrasing
Eph. 1:15-23
Ephesians 1:15-23
For this reason,
because I have heard of your faith
in the Lord Jesus
and your love
toward all the saints,
I do not cease to give thanks
for you,
remembering you in my prayers,
that the God ... ... may give you the Spirit
Content #1
of our Lord Jesus Christ,
Relational
the Father of glory,
of wisdom
Product
and of revelation
in the knowledge of him,
having the eyes ... enlightened,
of your hearts
that you may know (1) what is the hope
Content #2
to which he has called you,
(2) what are the riches
of his glorious inheritance
in the saints,
(3) and what is the immeasurable greatness
of his power
Attribute
toward us
who believe,
according to the working
of his great might
that he worked
in Christ
when (1) he raised him
Temporal #1
from the dead
Separation
(2) and seated him
Temporal #
at his right hand
Locative
in the heavenly places,
far above all rule
and authority
and power
and dominion,
and above every name that is named,
not only in this age
Negative
but also in the one to come.
(3) And he put all things
Temporal #3
under his feet
(4) and gave him as head
Temporal #4
over all things
to the church,
which is his body,
the fullness
of him
who fills all in all.
Arnold argues this is better translated "ever since" in the temporal sense, whereas "for this reason" refers back to 1:3-14
This entire box is about God's power revealed in Christ. cf Eph. 1:9-10 -- the end is all things being summed up in Christ.
Greek energeia is distinguished from the normal word for power (dunamis) by the fact that energeia is used for the realization of power, wheras dunamis is used for the potential. In other words, God's might is at work now, not merely potentially going to do somthing.
God was the one who raised Jesus from the dead. This is a mighty example of God's power.
Psalm 110:1 connection
See Arnold pg 114 for the religious background in Ephesus to "name that is named". This is "a context where many of the converts came from a background of engaging in the magical arts. The naming of names was foundational to magic. See Acts 19:13 for the only other NT use of naming of names. Paul is emphasizing Jesus' authority over spiritual being.
past tense: this has already happened! Christ is ruling NOW
These 4 events seem to be seen as a single event
"The church is filled (by Christ) and Christ fills the world completely (through the church)" - Arnold pg 117
cf. Isa 11:2 -- the shoot from the stump of Jesse has the Spirit of the Lord, described as the Spirit of wisdom and understanding
Eph. 2:1-10
Ephesians 2:1-10
And you were dead
in the trespasses and sins
Context/Ground
in which you once walked,
following the course
Explanation #1
of this world,
following the prince
Explanation #2
of the power
Subordination
of the air,
Attributive
the spirit that is ... at work
now
in the sons
of disobedience—
among whom we all once lived
in the passions
of our flesh,
carrying out the desires
of the body (lit. "flesh") and the mind,
and were ... children
of wrath,
by nature
like the rest of mankind.
Comparison
But God, ... (1) made us alive
being rich
in mercy,
because of the great love
with which he loved us,
(v.5) even when we were dead
Concessive
in our trespasses,
together with Christ—
Accompaniment
by grace
you have been saved—
(2) and raised us up
with him
(3) and seated us
with him
in the heavenly places
in Christ Jesus,
in the coming ages
so that ... he might show the immeasurable riches
of his grace
in kindness
toward us
in Christ Jesus.
by grace
For ... you have been saved
through faith.
And this is not your own doing;
it is the gift
of God,
not a result
of works,
so that no one may boast.
For we are his workmanship,
created in Christ Jesus
for good works,
which God prepared beforehand,
that we should walk
in them.
seems to have the sense of "the power that is in the air" or "the power in the air (read: spiritual) realm"
To live among the sons of disobedience is to live in your passions and desires. Impulsiveness and lustfulness characterize spiritually dead people.
We think we are independent... but are really just followers. You can either follow this world, or follow Christ.
we ONCE walked in them -- but no longer!
We were not mislead or confused. We were dead. One in such a state has no hope of self-improvement.
Contrast with our adoption as sons in Eph 1:5
The purpose of him making us alive is to 'show' his grace to us, and implicitly that he might be praised for it -- indeed it is "immesurable" and he wants to show it in "the coming ages" meaning, forevermore!
Is the gift the salvation? Or is the gift the faith through which we are saved? Arnold pg 139 argues it is clearly referring to salvation in it's entirety. Calvin also agrees.
God is 'rich' in mercy and has 'great' love toward us. It is not reluctant or small - though that would still be enough - it is a lavishing of kindness and love.
Our deadness was not a physical death, of course, but one that is in the context of our trespasses.
cf. Eph 1:20-23 -- there we read of God's power in raising Christ from the dead and seating him at his right hand. Since we are "in Christ" we too are made alive, raised with him, and seated with him (verse 6 as well).
Arnold pg. 130 -- "the dative case should be taken as both causal and as sphere"
"the age of this world" -- meaning the characteristics of life in this present evil age.
cf. John 12:31, John 14:30, John 16:11
"prince of the air realm/powers"
cf. Gal 2:15 This means that we are children of wrath from birth. We inherit this condition.
same word as used in Eph 1:19
Eph. 2:11-22
Ephesians 2:11-22
at one time
Therefore remember that ... you Gentiles
in the flesh,
called “the uncircumcision” by what is called the circumcision,
which is made in the flesh by hands—
at that time
remember that you were ... separated from Christ,
alienated from the commonwealth
of Israel
Epexgetical
and strangers to the covenants
of promise,
having no hope
and without God
in the world.
But now
in Christ Jesus
you ... have been brought near
who once were far off
by the blood
of Christ.
For he himself is our peace,
who has made us both one
and has broken down ... the dividing wall
of hostility
in his flesh
by abolishing the law
of commandments
expressed in ordinances,
that he might create ... one new man in place of the two,
Purpose #1
in himself
so making peace,
and might reconcile us both
Purpose #2
to God
in one body
Manner/Destination?
through the cross,
thereby killing the hostility.
And he came and preached peace to you
who were far off
and peace to those
who were near.
For ... we both have access ... to the Father.
through him
in one Spirit
So then you are no longer strangers and aliens,
but you are fellow citizens
with the saints
and members
of the household
Partitive
of God,
built on the foundation
of the apostles and prophets,
Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone,
in whom the whole structure, ... grows
into a holy temple
being joined together,
in the Lord.
In him you also are being built together
into a dwelling place
for God
by the Spirit.
Connection to OT references to idols 'made by hand' (Lev. 26:1, Lev 26:30, Isa 2:18, Isa 10:11, Isa 19:1, Dan 5:4, Dan 5:23) Paul uses this derogatorily.
Root of the English word atheist. Paul means 'alienated from the one true God'
cf. Isa 57:19 (also for v 2:17) -- that context was of Jews far off and Jews near. See Arnold pgs 156-157.
"the dividing wall, the fence, the enmity" in greek. See Arnold pg 159.
Arnold argues that Paul has the literal wall in mind that separated the court of the gentiles from the temple. See pgs 159-160.
See Isa 52:7 and Isa 57:19
The reason Gentiles can the good news preached to them is that access has been made available to the Gentile as well as the Jew
Most likely the apostles and prophets of the early church era. Note that prophets are not listed before apostles, which challenges the argument that this refers to the old testament and the new testament scriptures. Paul uses the phrase apostles and prophets elsewhere in Ephesians (Eph 3:5, Eph. 4:11). At a minimum he likely means the 12 (Acts 2:42), but Paul himself must also be included, as he was an apostle to the gentiles (Rom 11:13). Also, Barnabas is called an apostle in Acts 14:14. His use in 4:11 supposes that those gifts are continually being given to the church, and therefore suggests he may be using it in a broader sense of "those who have been called by God to establish churches wherever he calls them" (Arnold 170). Paul explains the role of prophets in 1 Cor. 14)
cf Isa 28:16
cf. 1 Peter 2:5
Just as God's presence filled the temple (Isa 6:1) so now God's presence fills his people.
Possessive genitive in greek (accd to Arnold pg 173 footnote 86)
Eph. 3:1-13
Ephesians 3:1-13
Intro to Paul's Prayer
For this reason I, Paul, a prisoner
for Christ Jesus
on behalf of you Gentiles—
Digression: The Mystery of Christ
assuming that you have heard of the stewardship
of God’s grace
that was given
to me
for you,
how the mystery was made known
to me
by revelation,
as I have written briefly.
When you read this,
you can perceive my insight
into the mystery
of Christ,
which was not made known
to the sons
of men
Expexegetical
in other generations
as it has now been revealed
to his holy apostles and prophets
by the Spirit.
This mystery is that the Gentiles are fellow heirs,
members
of the same body,
and partakers
of the promise
in Christ Jesus
through the gospel.
Paul's Commission
God's Gift to Paul
Of this gospel
I was made a minister
according to the gift
of God’s grace,
which was given me
by the working
of his power.
Subjective
Paul's Tasks and Purpose
To me, ... this grace was given,
though I am the very least
of all the saints,
to preach
Purpose #1
to the Gentiles
the unsearchable riches
of Christ,
and to bring to light
Purpose #2
for everyone
what is the plan
of the mystery
hidden for ages
in God
who created all things,
so that (1) ... the manifold wisdom ... might (2) ... be made known
of God
(2) now
(1) through the church
to the rulers and authorities
in the heavenly places.
Reassurance of God's Purpose
This was according to the eternal purpose
that he has realized
in Christ Jesus our Lord,
in whom we have boldness
and access
with confidence
through our faith
in him.
So I ask you not to lose heart
over what I am suffering
for you,
Advantage
which is your glory.
"now" been revealed to his apostles and prophets. This means he is not referring to the prophets of the OT here, and possibly also in Eph. 2:20 and Eph 4:11
Paul's preaching ministry was of GRACE! It is nothing of his own working - in fact, he is "the very least" and completely unworthy of the task in himself.
What a task! To preach something which is unsearchable
The purpose of Paul's ministry to the gentiles is to make God's wisdom known to the heavenly beings! "The very existence of the church, the one body composed of Jews and Gentiles, reveals God's wisdom to the powers." - Arnold p 197
"Do not lose heart, for God's eternal purposes are being accomplished through my suffering."
A conditional clause which is actually completed on 3:13
See Acts 21 for the story!
genitive of possession in gk accd to Arnold p 185
Grace in this passage seems to include his calling of apostleship
Likely referring to the Damascus road. It is not by Paul's own cunning and insight!
cf. Eph 1:9 for the first reference to mystery, which he talks about in this verse. Also may reference 2:11-22 since the mystery is that Gentiles are included in God's people. "Mystery" was a word commonly used among false religions (Arnold 188). He may have had this in mind as a sort of contrast with the false religions. However, it is used in Daniel 2 to describe God's plan for Neb. and should be seen in that light. Mystery also describes the gospel in 1 cor. 2:1, 7; Col 1:26-27; Col 2:2; Col 4:3. The mystery is primarily the coming of Christ and his bringing salvation through the cross (Arnold 87)
cf. Eph 1:18 where Paul prays for this same thing
The eternal purpose has actually been accomplished, through Jesus' work
"freedom" more than boldness -- doesn't include any ideas of presumptuousness
The readers (listeners) actually have the ability to understand the mystery! Paul is not keeping it hidden, and the mystery is not meant to be hidden -- it is now revealed, and is meant to be explained (3:9)
Eph 3:14-21
Ephesians 3:14-21
Paul's Prayer
For this reason
I bow my knees
before the Father,
from whom every family ... is named,
in heaven and on earth
Request #1
according to the riches
of his glory
that ... he may grant you to be strengthened
Content #1
with power
through his Spirit
in your inner being,
so that Christ may dwell
in your hearts
through faith—
Request #2
being rooted and grounded in love,
that you, ... may have strength (1) to comprehend
Content #2
with all the saints
what is the breadth
and length
and height
and depth,
(2) and to know the love
of Christ
that surpasses knowledge,
Summary
that you may be filled
with all the fullness
of God.
A Doxology
Now to him
who is able
to do far more abundantly
than all that we ask or think,
according to the power at work
within us,
to him be glory
in the church
and in Christ Jesus
throughout all generations,
forever and ever.
Points back to Eph. 2, especially 11-22 and the nearness of God -- since Eph 3:1 starts with the same wording, he is likely continuing the prayer he began there but interrupted with 3:2-13. "This reason" is therefore God's saving purposes for individuals and to bring gentiles into the family of God. This seems consistent with his prayer that they would have strength to comprehend God's love.
Paul's posture was apparently on his knees. This was common in the OT and in Judaism. See Dan 6:10, 1Chr 29:20, Ps 95:6. Some stood when praying as well, some fell on their face.
what are families in heaven? Arnold suggests it is likely referring to the different groupings of spiritual beings: powers, authorities, etc.
Paul prays to the sovereign God who exercises authority over all of creation. He has the power to complete these requests (3:20)
Functionally equivalent to the heart
Harkens back to the nearness of God in Eph 2:11-22. Paul prays for a deeper experience of the empowering Christ so that the lordship of Christ may be exhibited in their lives in ever-increasing ways.
Arnold sees this as a second request, parallel to "to be strengthened with power" and also "to be rooted and grounded in love" (17d)
Arnold sees this as the third request above. O'Brien sees it as the result of the first two requests above.
Breadth, length, height, and depth of what? 1) The vastness of God's power - Arnold (see Eph. 1:19) pg 215-216 2) The love of Christ - O'Brien 3) The "mystery" of God's plan 4) The manifold wisdom of God 5) The new temple 6) The heavenly inheritance, the New Jerusalem, which is thought of as a cube 7) The four arms of the cross of Christ, which embraces the world in all its dimensions
Irony!! How can you know something that surpasses know-ledge? We need God's strength.
see Col. 1:19 and Col 2:9-10 for other uses of "all the fullness." Also, similar to how God fills the temple -- and now, believers are the temple!
"able" translates dunamis -- "has the power". This emphasizes his power to complete what we ask.
Hallelujah, this power is already working in us. Power that can do more than we can even imagine!
Decided to use attributed, because fullness describes the genitive, God. Also thought about epexegetical, as in, "filled with all the fullness, which is God". Certainly, it is true that Paul wants the believers to be filled with God, but I think attributed works better as in, "filled with all of/the entirety of/the whole God".
Eph. 4:1-6
Ephesians 4:1-6
Paul Urges Unity
a prisoner
for the Lord,
I therefore, ... urge you
to walk
in a manner worthy of the calling
to which you have been called,
with all humility and gentleness,
with patience,
bearing with one another
in love,
eager to maintain the unity
of the Spirit
in the bond
of peace.
Paul Grounds Unity
There is one body
and one Spirit—
just as you were called
to the one hope
that belongs to your call—
one Lord,
one faith,
one baptism,
one God and Father
of all,
who is over all
and through all
and in all.
cf. Eph. 3:1 where he also calls himself a prisoner for Jesus. Emphasis is placed on his having lived this out -- he has indeed lived out his calling, and it has resulted in his imprisonment.
cf Eph. 2:2, 2:10, 4:17, 5:2, 5:8, 5:15 We were once in darkness and have been brought into the light. We do have a responsibility in this life to respond properly to what God has done for us. Walk here means something along the lines of "live" or "behave". You are the one who walks! God has created the good works for you to walk, but you are responsible to move your feet.
Not to earn the calling -- you have already been called! -- but in a way that befits the calling you have already received.
The therefore is there for the entire first half of Ephesians. Why would Paul urge his readers to walk worthy of the calling? Because they were once dead and have now been made alive! Because God has prepared good works for them to walk in! Because God has made the two men one new man, and they must now maintain that unity! "The new identity in Christ is what produces the good works" (Arnold p. 228)
Expect there to be friction, especially when from two different backgrounds. Notable that the ways Paul explains what it means to be worthy of the calling is more character than performance - "humility", "gentleness", "eager for unity"
This is the unity that has come by God making the two into one. It's source is the Spirit, and we must maintain it! Eph. 2:14
We are members of the same body (Eph 3:6) -- this refers to there being a single body of Christ, the church (Eph. 1:23). This happened through the cross (Eph 2:16) and the hostility is dead. Paul brings this up to ground our unity and encourage us to walk in this manner.
Through this Spirit we both (Jew and Gentile) have access to the Father (Eph. 2:18) and we have both been sealed by this same Spirit (Eph. 1:13). We are being built into the temple by the Spirit (Eph. 2:22)
We were once without hope in the world (Eph. 2:12) but have now been called to hope (Eph. 1:18)
We are growing into a temple "in the Lord" (Eph. 2:21). Jesus ultimately is our Lord (Eph. 1:2, 3, 15, 17, 3:11). Same language as in the Shema (Deut. 6:4)
We have been saved only by faith (Eph 2:8) and have access to the Father by faith in Jesus (Eph. 3:12). This also counters ideas of pluralism. There are not "many ways to God". There is one faith by which men are saved -- faith in Christ who died for our sins and raised again.
The only mention of baptism in Ephesians. Emphasizes that we have all made the same public confession and have all died and risen with Christ (Rom 6) -- we have been united in death with Christ and in resurrection with Christ.
Throughout Ephesians God and Father are together as God and Father or God our Father. This emphasizes the familial nature of our unity. We have one Father, since we have been adopted into the same family (Eph. 1:5)
cf. Romans 8:30 -- calling and election are clearly linked. It is a calling to a relationship with Himself.
"self-control and a tempered spirit" Arnold p 230
Eph. 4:7-16
Ephesians 4:7-16
But grace was given to each one
of us
according to the measure
of Christ’s gift.
Therefore it says,
“When he ascended on high
he led a host of captives,
and he gave gifts
to men.”
( In saying, “He ascended,”
what does it mean but that he had also descended
into the lower regions,
the earth?
who descended
He ... is the one
Answer
who also ascended
far above all the heavens,
that he might fill all things.)
And he gave the apostles,
the prophets,
the evangelists,
the shepherds and teachers,
to equip the saints
for the work
Purpose #1
of ministry,
for building up the body
Purpose #2
of Christ,
until we all attain to the unity
Temporal/Purpose
of the faith and
Producer
of the knowledge
of the Son
of God,
to mature manhood,
to the measure
of the stature
of the fullness
of Christ,
so that we may no longer be children,
tossed to and fro
by the waves
and carried about
by every wind
Means #1
of doctrine,
by human cunning,
Means #2
by craftiness
Means #3
in deceitful schemes.
speaking the truth
in love,
Rather, ... we are to grow up
in every way
into him
who is the head,
into Christ,
from whom the whole body, ... makes the body grow
joined and held together
by every joint
with which it is equipped,
when each part is working properly,
so that it builds itself up
in love.
The final purpose of ministry in the body is that each member is strong in his or her faith and doctrine, able to resist human cunning and craftiness.
Quoting Psalm 68:18, but may be from a variant not known to us. The point is that Jesus has given his people gifts after he ascended from his death. He is the conqueror of death and therefore gives gifts to his own people.
Cf. Eph. 1:9-10, 1:23, 4:6
cf. Eph. 1:21
The work of ministry IS the building up the body. This makes a lot more sense in the context of Ephesians 4. v 1-6 are all about unity, Ephesians 3 is all about the mystery of Jew and Gentile both being saved in the same way. Ephesians 2 is about God saving and redeeming a new humanity, and destroying the hostility.
3-fold goal: 1) unity that comes from faith and knowledge of Jesus -- we are unified by the same faith. 2) maturity (see note on 14a) 3) stature
Contrasted with "mature manhood" in v 13. Children are tossed to and fro, unstable, confused. Maturity involves knowing the rock upon which you stand.
This is the means of the goals listed above (maturity) -- grow up! How? By speaking truth in love (and also the next entire section of the book)
Grace is given to each of us for the building up of the body. This is our spiritual gift! The word Paul uses for spiritual gift elsewhere actually is something like "a manifestation of grace" (Arnold p 246)
God (now Jesus) as triumphant warrior ascending to his throne after defeating enemies.
Captives in this context is most likely the "principalities, rulers and authorities" cf Eph. 1:20-22, 6:12, and Col 2:15
Both the Aramaic and Syriac translations of the Psalms have a form of "you gave gifts" The Syriac translation is also one of the oldest. Dialects of Coptic and Old Latin also have the same reading.
What are the lower parts of the earth? 1) Incarnation and death of Jesus -- he descended to earth (seems to be ESV interpretation) 2) Christ's burial after death 3) the coming of the Spirit at Pentecost 4) a descent of Christ into the underworld Arnold argues for 4 pgs 253-254. Cf. 1 Peter 3:19
"He gave" -- not elected, not achieved. These roles and persons are a gift from the Sovereign Lord!
Would most likely be local evangelists, as opposed to apostles who go to new areas. Evangelists would be tasked with equipping the saints as well, presumably in evangelism!
See notes on 2:20. Arnold argues this would be something akin to what we now call church planters. See Arnold pgs. 255-259
In 1 Corinthians 14, they are told they are to strengthen, encourage, and comfort the people of God. This lines up with their tasks here, equipping for unity.
Not exactly the same role, but very intertwined. "Pastors are gifted to teach, but he stops short of saying that all teachers are gifted to be pastors" - Arnold p 260.
cf 2 Tim 3:16-17 - Equipped is the same word as here.
Implies a certainty of the result! We will indeed attain this unity.
"to perfect man" -- given relationship with Eph 2:15, where the two become one man, this can more properly be interpreted as "to become a mature body". However, with the contrast to being children, manhood is also fitting.
cf Matt 5:48, Deut 18:13. Described Noah in Gen 6:9, and David in 1 Kings 11:4. Devotion to the Lord, no devotion to other gods, grief over sin, allowance of God to work.
"schemes" and "cunning" indicate purpose. These false doctrines are not "stumbled into" -- they are intentionally brought in and taught with craftiness. Therefore, high awareness is required.
Arnold translates it as "confessing" and says it involves maintaining a corporate confession of faith (p 268). "Accepting the truth of the gospel, speaking it out loud in the corporate gatherings of worship, talking about it with fellow believers, and upholding it firmly." (Pg 269). O'Brien also takes it this way, "Accordingly, the apostle is not exhorting his readers to truthfulness in general or speaking honestly with one another, however appropriate or important this may be. Rather, he wants all of them to be members of a ‘confessing’ church, with the content of their testimony to be ‘the word of truth’, the gospel of their salvation (1:13). This truth, which is guaranteed by God and is depicted as part of his own armour, is the belt which believers are to buckle around their waist as they resist the onslaughts of the evil one (6:14)."
cf. Eph 1:22
Every joint, every part of the body is critical in holding the body together and in making the body grow. Every church member is crucial!
Eph. 4:17-24
Ephesians 4:17-24
Description of Unbelievers
Now this I say and testify
in the Lord,
that you must no longer walk
as the Gentiles do,
in the futility
of their minds.
They are darkened in their understanding,
[they are] alienated
from the life
of God
because of the ignorance
that is in them,
due to their hardness
of heart.
They have become callous
and have given themselves up to sensuality,
greedy to practice every kind
of impurity.
But that is not the way you learned Christ!—
assuming that you have heard
Conditional/Ground
about him
and were taught
in him,
as the truth is in Jesus,
to put off your old self,
Content #1
which belongs to your former manner
of life
and is corrupt
through deceitful desires,
and to be renewed
Content #2
in the spirit
of your minds,
and to put on the new self,
Content #3
created after the likeness
of God
in true righteousness and holiness.
Same term as used throughout Eccl. in the LXX. (Ecl 1:2, 14; 2:1, 11, 15, 17, 19) -- life without God is completely futile and vain. See also Rom. 1:21
Life apart from God is ultimately meaningless, dark, lonely, and wicked.
cf. Rom 1:21 -- where Paul says their hearts are darkened
Separation from the life that comes from God IS death -- cf. Eph. 2:1 -- we were in fact dead.
Hard hearts lead to ignorance, and thus alienation and darkened understanding.
Had a hard time deciding this genitive. I landed on attributed because 'every kind' describes the impurities being committed. They are many, vast, multiple. "Various impurities" is a paraphrase here.
"Learning Christ means welcoming him as a living person and being shaped by his teaching" - O'Brien 324
Arnold takes "in the spirit of your minds" as "by the Spirit in your minds"
Eph. 4:25-5:2
Ephesians 4:25-5:2
having put away falsehood,
Therefore, ... let each one ... speak the truth
of you
with his neighbor,
for we are members one
of another.
Be angry and do not sin;
do not let the sun go down
on your anger,
and give no opportunity
to the devil.
Let the thief no longer steal,
but rather let him labor,
doing honest work
with his own hands,
so that he may have something
to share
with anyone in need.
Let no corrupting talk come
out of your mouths,
but only such as is good for building up,
as fits the occasion,
that it may give grace
to those
who hear.
And do not grieve the Holy Spirit
of God,
by whom you were sealed
for the day
of redemption.
Let all bitterness
and wrath
and anger
and clamor
and slander be put away
from you,
along with all malice.
Be kind to one another,
tenderhearted,
forgiving one another,
Example
as God in Christ forgave you.
Therefore be imitators
of God,
as beloved children.
And walk in love,
as Christ loved us
and gave himself up
for us,
a fragrant offering and sacrifice
to God.
cf. Eph 4:15 -- we have put away, left, false things. Our old self is being taken off. Therefore, speak truth. However, it also may be seen as both imperatives: take off falsehood and speak the truth (Arnold 299) Also see Col. 3:9
cf. Eph 2:19 -- Paul is grounding our speaking truth with one another in the fact that we have become "members" of one another, just as we are members of the household of God.
Quote of Zech. 8:16
Quote of Ps. 4:4 -- in context, it is David expressing distress over God's people turning to idols.
Roots these exhortations in the overarching call to put off the old self and to put on the new self (Eph. 4:22-24)
Amazing! Paul commands anger in some sense. "Be angry" he says! Far from forbidding the emotion he actually commands it, yet tempers it and explains what to do with it.
Functions as a ground even though it doesn't use typical ground language. Paraphrase: "do not let anger linger, because then you will give an opportunity to the devil"
8th commandment from Ex. 20:15
The purpose is to be able to share with others in need! Not only provide for your own family needs. Why do you work? Only for self-preservation? Or to generate wealth for sharing? WSC Q. 74. What is required in the eighth commandment? A. The eighth commandment requireth the lawful procuring and furthering the wealth and outward estate of ourselves and others.
The word here described rotted wood, diseased lungs, rancid fish, withered flowers, and rotten fruit (Arnold 305) and was used to describe the kind of fruit that a bad tree bears.
We have been each given grace (Eph 4:7) and therefore are to pass it on -- one way of doing so is through our words.
cf. Eph 1:13 -- this emphasizes the different lives we should be living. To live just as unbelievers is to live unworthy of our calling and grieves the Spirit, who actually dwells within us!
cf. Isa 63:10 -- in context, Isaiah is talking about God's people after the exodus, the ultimate salvation event in the OT. And yet they "grieved" the Spirit by rebelling against him (see also Ps 78:40). Also, "grieve" demonstrates that the Spirit is a person.
Arnold points out a progression from inner feelings of bitterness to expressions of harmful speech.
"yelling" as in war cries or shouting back and forth
cf. Matt 15:19 where Jesus says this kind of speech is rooted in a corrupt heart
Jesus gave himself -- he was not passive in his activity on the cross
To walk in love sums up everything that has been said and relates back to Eph 4:1 -- "walk in a manner worthy"
Offering refers to something brought voluntarily, sacrifice refers to an animal sacrifice for the forgiveness of sin.
Appears frequently to describe sacrifices in the OT which were burned and thus gave off an aroma and a fragrance (Lev 1:9, 13, 17; 2:2)
Eph. 5:3-14
Ephesians 5:3-14
But sexual immorality ... must not even be named
and all impurity
or covetousness
among you,
as is proper
among saints.
Let there be no filthiness
nor foolish talk
nor crude joking,
which are out of place,
but instead let there be thanksgiving.
For you may be sure of this,
that everyone ... has no inheritance
who is sexually immoral
or impure,
or who is covetous
( that is, an idolater),
in the kingdom
of Christ and God.
Let no one deceive you
with empty words,
for because of these things the wrath ... comes
of God
upon the sons
of disobedience.
Therefore do not become partners
with them;
for ... you were darkness,
at one time
but ... you are light
in the Lord.
Central Exhortation: Walk as Children of Light
Exhortation and Explanation
Walk as children
of light
(for the fruit ... is found
of light
in all that is good
and right
and true),
and try to discern
what is pleasing to the Lord.
Relating to Darkness
Take no part in the unfruitful works
of darkness,
but instead expose them.
For it is shameful
even to speak of the things
that they do
in secret.
But when anything is exposed
by the light,
it becomes visible,
for anything ... is light.
that becomes visible
Therefore it says,
“Awake, O sleeper,
and arise from the dead,
and Christ will shine on you.”
In this day, sexual immorality was rampant -- "Adulterous relationships, men sleeping with their slave girls, incest, prostitution, "sacred" sexual encounters in the local temples, and homosexuality were all a part of everyday life." - Arnold p 320
cf. Eph 4:19 -- corruption in the heart of individuals renders us impure
The word here is similar to the sense of the english term "to turn a phrase" -- had a sense of "wittiness" or "facetiousness". Arnold suggests Paul here means to condemn joking that has a connection with lewdness or joking at someone else's expense, rather than condemning all joking.
Connection to Jesus' claim that we cannot serve two masters, God and Mammon -- similar to calling covetousness (greed) idolatry (Matt. 6:24). Also Col. 3:5
cf. Eph 2:2 -- they are the ones among whom we once walked
cf Col 2:8 and Eph 4:14 -- it is vitally important to be clear with one another about truth -- that we may not be 'decieved'
Clearly, this can be applied today to the efforts of some to justify homosexuality within the church (most prominently, but justify many other sins as well) -- the grounding in Paul's calling is the wrath of God against sin. Losing sight of the doctrine of the wrath of God is dangerous.
In verse 3, we are called to put away behaviors such as sexual immortality, impurity and covetousness. Here, those that are characterized or identified by such behavior are not to inherit the kingdom.
cf. Eph 3:6, where this word is translated partakers in ESV
This "once...now" construction mirrors the passages of Eph 2:1-10 and Eph 2:11-22. The basis of not being partakers with them is our new identity in Him!
Not "in darkness" -- you "were darkness" in nature. We are not fundamentally good before Christ but just lost our way. We were dark in nature. (Arnold 328)
Likewise, we are now light! Not just messed up people who are fumbling around. We are in fact light by nature.
It is only by virtue of our connection with The Light that we are light.
cf. Eph 4:24-25 -- our new self is in righteousness, and truth
Arnold argues this is a participle of means on pg. 330
cf. Rm 12:2 -- discerning the will of God
Very interesting discussion on whether this means to expose the unfruitful works of darkness in the world or among fellow believers. Arnold's most convincing point that this means to expose the deeds of fellow believers is the use of the word translated as expose in other contexts. 1 Tim 5:20, 2 Tim 4:2, Titus 1:9 are the response of community to sinners. Jesus commands in Matt 18:15 to "go and show him his fault".
Several translate this as "everything that is visible is light" rather than "becomes". See Arnold 333.
Arnold's explanation is this being an early hymn heavily influenced by Isa 60:1, Isa 60:2 and Isa 26:19
That is, the things listed in 5:5
Eph. 5:15-21
Ephesians 5:15-21
Wisdom and the Spirit
Walk in Wisdom
Look carefully then how you walk,
not as unwise
but as wise,
making the best use of the time,
because the days are evil.
Therefore do not be foolish,
but understand what the will ... is.
of the Lord
Be Filled with the Spirit
And do not get drunk
with wine,
for that is debauchery,
but be filled with the Spirit,
(1) addressing one another in psalms
Explanation #1
and hymns
and spiritual songs,
(2) singing and making melody
Explanation #2
to the Lord
with your heart,
(3) giving thanks
Explanation #3
always
and for everything
to God the Father
in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,
(4) submitting to one another
Explanation #4
out of reverence
for Christ.
6th use of the word "walk"; Eph 2:10, Eph 4:1, 17; 5:2, 8 This is a word used to describe the way in which we go about our lives. We are to walk into acts of good works , in a manner worthy of the calling , not as the gentiles do , in love , and as children of light
To be wise, we need the Spirit of Wisdom! (Eph 1:17)
Debauchery also used in Titus 1:6, and 1 Pet 4:4 (in ESV) but the greek word aselgeia is used most often in lists of vices (Rom 13:13, 2 Cor 12:21, 2 Pet 2:2) and Jesus uses it in Mk 7:22. It was a chief sin of Sodom and Gomorrah (2 Pet 2:7) -- it means lewdness or sensuality. An attitude of immorality, particularly sexual in nature. (see Mounce Expository Dictionary)
Contrasts dramatically with those who are asleep in Eph 5:14. We must be vigilant, not asleep! Be watchful.
Very similar to Col. 4:5-6 -- however, there it emphasizes how we ought to behave toward outsiders.
Literally 'redeeming' or 'buying' the time.
This is an inference from 15a because of the connection between wise/unwise, rather than an inference from 16b about the days being evil.
The LXX word for the beginning of the 150 hebrew bible book of praises -- not usually used in the graeco-roman world
Commonly used for poetic praise songs to gods in antiquity (Arnold 353).
More general term used in both Judaism and Graeco-Roman world.
Paul means to convey some variety within how believers are to address one another in music. But all are to be 'spiritual' as they are led by the Spirit and point to the Lord.
The heart is the center of the person -- reasoning, feeling, affections, inclinations.
Modeled by Paul in 1:15-23!
Arnold 356 - submitting often refers to the proper social ordering of people. Warriors submit to generals. Citizens submit to governors. Responsibility to live in an orderly manner and not to be rebellious.
Closely relates to Jesus' command that whoever would be great must become a servant (Mark 10:42-45). Also, similar to Paul's call to the Philippians to be humble and consider one another's needs.
verbal form of 'psalms' in greek
Eph. 5:21-33
Ephesians 5:21-33
Overarching Command
submitting to one another out of reverence for Christ.
Exhortation to Wives: Submit to Your Husbands
Wives, submit to your own husbands,
as to the Lord.
For the husband is the head
of the wife
even as Christ is the head
of the church,
his body,
and is himself its Savior.
Now as the church submits to Christ,
so also wives should submit ... to their husbands.
in everything
Exhortation to Husbands: Love Your Wives
Example 1: As Christ Loved the Church
Husbands, love your wives,
as Christ loved the church
and gave himself up
for her,
that he might sanctify her,
having cleansed her
by the washing
of water
with the word,
so that he might present the church to himself
in splendor,
without spot
or wrinkle
or any such thing,
that she might be holy
and without blemish.
Example 2: As Your Own Body
In the same way
husbands should love their wives
as their own bodies.
He ... loves himself.
who loves his wife
For no one ever hated his own flesh,
but nourishes and cherishes it,
just as Christ does the church,
because we are members
of his body.
“Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother
and hold fast to his wife,
and the two shall become one flesh.”
This mystery is profound,
and I am saying that it refers to Christ and the church.
Summary Exhortation
However, let each one ... love his wife
of you
as himself,
and let the wife see that she respects her husband.
In Eph 1:22; 4:15-16 the head/body imagery is used as well. That informs his use here. Leadership and provision are two themes in those other uses.
Christ is the savior of the church, but there is not an analogous role for Christian husbands. This statement is purely Christological, according to Arnold 382.
Same phrase as in Eph 5:2
There is no provision for conditions on this love to be given. Love your wives 'if'... Rather, just like Christ loved the church even in its most unlovable state emphasizes the point that husbands ought to love their wives without condition.
Both to set apart for himself (as a bride is set apart for a husband) and to purify from sins.
A lot is here! Ezekiel 36:25-27 -- future cleansing in the new covenant was predicted, including cleansing with water. This is referenced in John 3:5. Cf. 1 Cor 6:11 and Titus 3:5 - the Spirit is the means by which we were cleansed. He refers "to an inward form of cleansing that has been applied by the Holy Spirit" Arnold 388.
Rom 10:17 -- this is primarily the gospel message. Also see Eph 1:13.
Allusion to Lev 19:18
The verb here is not originally there -- but it is implied from verse 21.
Word originally had the sense of heat, as a mother bird broods over her nest. Same word as in 1 Thess 2:7
"and be bonded" with the literal sense of gluing to objects together (Arnold 393) -- however, this is distinct from being an alloy. Husbands and wives maintain personal distinctions while being joined together into one.
Refers back to the original exhortation to submit out of reverence.
How has Christ loved the church? Of course, He has given Himself up (25c). He also provides for the church (Eph 4:15-16) to grow and mature. He provides power and protection for the church (Eph 1:22-23). He came to serve (Mark 10:45).
Eph. 6:1-9
Ephesians 6:1-9
net
Children and Parents
Children, obey your parents
Children, obey your parents in the Lord for this is right.
Τὰ τέκνα, ὑπακούετε τοῖς γονεῦσιν ὑμῶν ἐν κυρίῳ, τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν δίκαιον·
in the Lord,
for this is right.
“Honor your father and mother”
“Honor your father and mother,” which is the first commandment accompanied by a promise, namely,
τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα, ἥτις ἐστὶν ἐντολὴ πρώτη ἐν ἐπαγγελίᾳ,
(this is the first commandment
with a promise),
“that it may go well with you
“that it may go well with you and that you will live a long time on the earth.”
ἵνα εὖ σοι γένηται καὶ ἔσῃ μακροχρόνιος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς.
Purpose #1
and that you may live long
Purpose #2
in the land.”
Fathers, do not provoke your children
Fathers, do not provoke your children to anger, but raise them up in the discipline and instruction of the Lord.
Καὶ οἱ πατέρες, μὴ παροργίζετε τὰ τέκνα ὑμῶν, ἀλλὰ ἐκτρέφετε αὐτὰ ἐν παιδείᾳ καὶ νουθεσίᾳ κυρίου.
to anger,
but bring them up
in the discipline
and instruction
of the Lord.
Slaves and Masters
Bondservants, obey your earthly masters
Slaves, obey your human masters with fear and trembling, in the sincerity of your heart as to Christ,
Οἱ δοῦλοι, ὑπακούετε τοῖς κατὰ σάρκα κυρίοις μετὰ φόβου καὶ τρόμου ἐν ἁπλότητι τῆς καρδίας ὑμῶν ὡς τῷ Χριστῷ,
with fear and trembling,
Manner #1
with a sincere heart,
Manner #2
as you would Christ,
Manner #3
not by the way of eye- service,
not like those who do their work only when someone is watching - as people- pleasers - but as slaves of Christ doing the will of God from the heart.
μὴ κατ’ ὀφθαλμοδουλίαν ὡς ἀνθρωπάρεσκοι ἀλλ’ ὡς δοῦλοι Χριστοῦ ποιοῦντες τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ, ἐκ ψυχῆς
as people- pleasers,
but as bondservants
Manner #4
of Christ,
doing the will
of God
from the heart,
rendering service
Obey with enthusiasm, as though serving the Lord and not people,
μετ’ εὐνοίας δουλεύοντες, ὡς τῷ κυρίῳ καὶ οὐκ ἀνθρώποις,
with a good will
Manner #1
as to the Lord
Manner #2
and not to man,
whatever good anyone does,
because you know that each person, whether slave or free, if he does something good, this will be rewarded by the Lord.
εἰδότες ὅτι ἕκαστος, ὃ ἂν ποιήσῃ ἀγαθόν, τοῦτο κομίσεται παρὰ κυρίου, εἴτε δοῦλος εἴτε ἐλεύθερος.
Condition
this
knowing that ... he will receive back
from the Lord,
whether he is a bondservant
or is free.
Masters, do the same
Masters, treat your slaves the same way, giving up the use of threats, because you know that both you and they have the same master in heaven, and there is no favoritism with him.
Καὶ οἱ κύριοι, τὰ αὐτὰ ποιεῖτε πρὸς αὐτούς, ἀνιέντες τὴν ἀπειλήν, εἰδότες ὅτι καὶ αὐτῶν καὶ ὑμῶν ὁ κύριός ἐστιν ἐν οὐρανοῖς, καὶ προσωπολημψία οὐκ ἔστιν παρ’ αὐτῷ.
to them,
and stop your threatening,
knowing that he ... is in heaven,
Ground #1
who is both their Master and yours
and that there is no partiality
Ground #2
with him.
Obedience is not most deeply rooted in their say, but in that it is out respect for Jesus.
That is, the first commandment of all of those in the Torah
Deut 5:16 and Ex. 20:12 -- that it may go well with you is not included in the Exodus version.
This rules out any kind of provocative action: mocking, harshness, unreasonableness, changing standards, inconsistency, demeaning. Cf. Col 3:21
Same word as in Eph 5:29 for 'nurture'
Admonition: specific to verbal instruction, exhortation, warnings, and rebukes
Used of the Canaanites during the conquest (Deut 2:25), of serving the Lord (Ps 2:11) and working out salvation (Phil 2:12), when Paul approaches the Corinthians to share the gospel (1 Cor 2:3)
Arnold translates this as "if he does something good" which shows the conditionality more clearly
Also used to describe the way God will reward in the final judgement (2 Cor 5:10, Col 3:25)
This continues what began in Eph. 5:21, where Paul calls on the believers in Ephesus to submit to one another. He has already described how husbands and wives are to behave. Now he continues with the pairs of children and fathers, and then slaves and masters. It is noticeable that the subordinate of the two pair always comes first. This gives emphasis on the fact that both parties have a responsibility to the other, it is not only the husband, father, and master's job to do everything. It also gives personhood to each pair. Parallel passage in Col. 3:20 - 4:1
Τὰ τέκνα, ὑπακούετε τοῖς γονεῦσιν ὑμῶν ἐν κυρίῳ, τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν δίκαιον·
τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα, ἥτις ἐστὶν ἐντολὴ πρώτη ἐν ἐπαγγελίᾳ,
ἵνα εὖ σοι γένηται καὶ ἔσῃ μακροχρόνιος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς.
Καὶ οἱ πατέρες, μὴ παροργίζετε τὰ τέκνα ὑμῶν, ἀλλὰ ἐκτρέφετε αὐτὰ ἐν παιδείᾳ καὶ νουθεσίᾳ κυρίου.
Οἱ δοῦλοι, ὑπακούετε τοῖς κατὰ σάρκα κυρίοις μετὰ φόβου καὶ τρόμου ἐν ἁπλότητι τῆς καρδίας ὑμῶν ὡς τῷ Χριστῷ,
μὴ κατ’ ὀφθαλμοδουλίαν ὡς ἀνθρωπάρεσκοι ἀλλ’ ὡς δοῦλοι Χριστοῦ ποιοῦντες τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ, ἐκ ψυχῆς
μετ’ εὐνοίας δουλεύοντες, ὡς τῷ κυρίῳ καὶ οὐκ ἀνθρώποις,
εἰδότες ὅτι ἕκαστος, ὃ ἂν ποιήσῃ ἀγαθόν, τοῦτο κομίσεται παρὰ κυρίου, εἴτε δοῦλος εἴτε ἐλεύθερος.
Καὶ οἱ κύριοι, τὰ αὐτὰ ποιεῖτε πρὸς αὐτούς, ἀνιέντες τὴν ἀπειλήν, εἰδότες ὅτι καὶ αὐτῶν καὶ ὑμῶν ὁ κύριός ἐστιν ἐν οὐρανοῖς, καὶ προσωπολημψία οὐκ ἔστιν παρ’ αὐτῷ.
Eph. 6:10-20
Ephesians 6:10-20
Finally, be strong
in the Lord and
in the strength
of his might.
Put on the whole armor
of God,
that you may be able to stand
against the schemes
Disadvantage
of the devil.
For we do not wrestle
against flesh and blood,
but against the rulers,
against the authorities,
against the cosmic powers
over this present darkness,
against the spiritual forces
of evil
in the heavenly places.
Therefore take up the whole armor
of God,
that you may be able to withstand
in the evil day,
and having done all,
to stand firm.
Stand therefore,
having fastened on the belt
Means #1
of truth,
and having put on the breastplate
Means #2
of righteousness,
and, as shoes
for your feet,
having put on the readiness
Means #3
[which is] given by the gospel
of peace.
Product/Content
In all circumstances
take up the shield
Means #4
of faith,
with which you can extinguish all the flaming darts
of the evil one;
and take the helmet
Means #5
of salvation,
and the sword
Means #6
of the Spirit,
which is the word
of God,
praying
Means #7
at all times
in the Spirit,
with all prayer and supplication.
To that end
keep alert
with all perseverance,
making supplication
for all the saints,
and also for me,
that words may be given to me
in opening my mouth
boldly
to proclaim the mystery
of the gospel,
for which I am an ambassador
in chains,
that I may declare it boldly,
as I ought to speak.
Arnold argues for a passive voice: the idea is that of receiving strength from an outside source (pg 442). Evokes language from Joshua to be strong (Josh 1)
Refers to Jesus, see Eph. 2:21; 4:1, 17; 5:8; 6:1, 21 as well as Eph 1:2, 3, 15, 17; 5:20; 6:23, 24
This is from Eph 1:19-20! It is only from being united with Christ that we have any strength at all. Indeed he has raised us up with Christ (Eph 2:6)
cf Eph 4:24 -- "to put on" is to take on a new identity, a new self. Paul is saying part of our battle against the devil is by knowing who we are in Christ, or another way of saying 'be strong in the Lord'. See also Rom 13:12, 1 Thess 5:8
Does not mean only defensive -- can also mean an aggressive stance against the opponent -- Arnold 445
cf Eph 4:14 where this is used to describe schemes that come to sway unstable Christians
Used these two terms in Eph 1:21; 3:10
Often used in context of 'taking up' weapons see Jer 46:3
Both current realities (Eph 5:16; 2:2), coming days of severe temptation and evil attacks, and the final days leading to Christ's return.
"Preparation for the battle does not take place once it begins but well in advance" - Arnold 450
cf Isa 11:5 -- Messianic imagery of one girded with righteousness
Refers both to the truth of the gospel (Eph 1:13) and to living in integrity (which fits more with the Isaiah reference). See Eph 4:25 -- put away falsehood, and speak truth. In the same way, here we are to put on the belt of truth.
cf. Eph 4:24 -- where we are told we are created in true righteousness after God's image! We are a new person, and must appropriate His power by living out this new man-ness. Romans 3:21-22 tells us that we have received righteousness by faith alone.
Isa 59:17 is the clear connection here. The imagery is of the warrior God coming to bring justice where there is no justice.
cf Romans 10:15 and Isa 52:7 -- the feet are what is beautiful for the one who preaches good news, a message of peace.
Also clearly Isaiah 59:17, see note on 14d. This is very similar to 1 Thess 5:8
Salvation which comes from the gospel message -- see Eph 1:13
There is to be not only a willingness, but a readiness -- being on the lookout for opportunities. This is given by the gospel because it is 'the power of God for salvation' (Rom 1:16)
cf Eph 2:14 -- he himself is our peace! the gospel is a message of peace 'to those who are far off and to those who are near (Eph. 2:17) and he made peace among us and with God (Eph 2:15). Rom 5:1 tells us that we have peace with God.
Faith is the means by which we are saved! See Eph 2:8-9. See also Rom 4:16 -- the promise rests on grace through faith. Faith is also how we are strengthened -- as in Eph 3:16-17
Faith is ultimately trust in God's word, that he will do what he says. The flaming darts are what tell us to distrust God's word, just as the serpent tempted Eve by questioning God's word. Faith is a shield in that it rests on God's word and stands in confidence in His word.
Would refer to a short sword or even to a knife, not to a broadsword.
Isa 11:4 connects these ideas as well -- the rod of the messiah's mouth will strike the earth, he will slay the wicked with his mouth. This also fits with the other Isaiah imagery and with the God as Warrior theme.
Means something like persistent prayer, as in the persistent widow parable
Paul would be in prison, awaiting an appearance before Nero (according to Arnold, p 467) -- this is a request for prayer to be bold in the face of danger and amazing opportunity before the emperor.
Eph. 6:21-24
Ephesians 6:21-24
So that you also may know
how I am
and what I am doing,
Tychicus ... will tell you everything.
the beloved brother
and faithful minister
in the Lord
I have sent him
to you
for this very purpose,
that you may know
Purpose #1
how we are,
and that he may encourage your hearts.
Purpose #2
Peace be to the brothers,
and love
with faith,
from God the Father
and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Grace be with all
who love our Lord Jesus Christ
with love incorruptible.
Paul is intentional in letting them know how he is and what is going on -- transparency! Who knows if they asked him -- he wants them to know and is sending someone 'for this very purpose' of them knowing and to encourage them.
Identical to Col 4:8 -- see also Rom 1:12
Tychicus has a deep relationship with Paul.
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