Λογίζομαι γὰρ ὅτι οὐκ ἄξια τὰ παθήματα τοῦ νῦν καιροῦ πρὸς τὴν μέλλουσαν δόξαν ἀποκαλυφθῆναι εἰς ἡμᾶς.
For I consider that the sufferings of this present time n are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us.
ἡ γὰρ ἀποκαραδοκία τῆς κτίσεως τὴν ἀποκάλυψιν τῶν υἱῶν τοῦ θεοῦ ἀπεκδέχεται .
For the creation waits with eager longing for o the revealing of the sons of God.
τῇ γὰρ ματαιότητι ἡ κτίσις ὑπετάγη,
For the creation p was subjected to futility,
ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα,
but q because of him who subjected it,
ὅτι καὶ αὐτὴ ἡ κτίσις ἐλευθερωθήσεται ἀπὸ τῆς δουλείας τῆς φθορᾶς εἰς τὴν ἐλευθερίαν τῆς δόξης τῶν τέκνων τοῦ θεοῦ.
that r the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to corruption and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God.
οἴδαμεν γὰρ ὅτι πᾶσα ἡ κτίσις συστενάζει καὶ συνωδίνει ἄχρι τοῦ νῦν•
For we know that s the whole creation t has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now.
οὐ μόνον δέ ,
And not only the creation,
ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτοὶ τὴν ἀπαρχὴν τοῦ πνεύματος ἔχοντες, ἡμεῖς καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς στενάζομεν
but we ourselves, who have u the firstfruits of the Spirit, v groan inwardly
υἱοθεσίαν ἀπεκδεχόμενοι ,
as w we wait eagerly for adoption as sons,
τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν τοῦ σώματος ἡμῶν .
x the redemption of our bodies.
τῇ γὰρ ἐλπίδι ἐσώθημεν•
For y in this hope we were saved.
ἐλπὶς δὲ βλεπομένη οὐκ ἔστιν ἐλπίς•
Now z hope that is seen is not hope.
ὃ γὰρ βλέπει τίς ἐλπίζει ;
For who hopes for what he sees?
εἰ δὲ ὃ οὐ βλέπομεν ἐλπίζομεν,
But if we hope for what we do not see,
διʼ ὑπομονῆς ἀπεκδεχόμεθα .
we a wait for it with patience.
Here, Paul is building off of εἴπερ συμπἀσχομεν ἵνα καὶ συνδοξασθῶμεν from v. 17.
Here, Paul is building off of εἴπερ συμπἀσχομεν ἵνα καὶ συνδοξασθῶμεν from v. 17.
Is this ἀποκάλυψιν the "about to be revealed (ἀποκαλυφθῆναι) to us " glory?
point/counter point set
This use of δόξα seems to parallel the use in v. 18. That is, the hope for which God subjected creation to vain is that creation might also share in the "about to be revealed to us glory."
See Runge here (left-dislocation?)
See Runge here (right-dislocation?)
What is "first-fruits" of the Spirit?
See Schreiner; "since" seems to better grasp Paul's meaning with this conditional clause. He's not presenting an actual plausibility, for he just said " by/because of hope we were saved!" Therefore, the εἰ is rhetorical—not to be taken as a literal condition, but to prove Paul's point that we hope for the unseen.
Both creation and the children of God groan , while they await the glory to come.
Creation awaits the revelation of the sons of God.
More precise: Action- agency
"The glory, which is to be revealed to us"
2nd attributive position (article-adjective [participle]-noun), See Wallace, 618)
"The about to be revealed to us glory"
Possessive genitive (Wallace, 81)
Subjective or Possessive?
See Going Deeper on article functions.
apposition; i.e., ἑλπίδι = v. 21; i.e., ὅτι of content
ἐπί here expresses purpose (See Harris, Preposition & Theology , 138)
Temporal (" while we wait")
Accusative in simple apposition (Wallace, 198)
Objective genitive (Wallace, 116–117)
Possessive genitive (Wallace, 81)
Fourth attributive adjectival construction (Wallace, 618)
See Lidell and Scott, 684 (C. III. 4.): " in proportion or relation to, in comparison of ..."
What we must keep in mind is that this section (vv. 18–30) supports the previous section (8:12–17). The ἄρα οὖν of v. 12 indicates that a new inferential segment, coming off of vv. 1–11, has occurred, and that our current section (vv. 18–30) supports ( γἀρ ) vv. 12–17. How does the support precisely function? For that answer, we must first uncover the meaning of vv. 18–30—and only then will we be in a position to understand yet another one of Paul’s versatile uses of γάρ . [8:18–25] Verse 18 itself summarizes all of vv. 19–30. That is, vv.19–25, as complex as Paul’s argument is, merely restates v. 18. It is thus explanatory ( γάρ ).  The main point of vv. 18–30 is Λογίζομαι γὰρ ὅτι οὐκ ἄξια τὰ παθήματα τοῦ νῦν καιροῦ πρὸς τὴν μέλλουσαν δόξαν ἀποκαλυφθῆναι εἰς ἡμᾶς. [v. 18] Building off of εἴπερ συμπάσχομεν ἵνα καὶ συνδοξασθῶμεν in v. 17, Paul declares that even the sufferings we share with Christ himself (συμπάσχομεν) are not worthy to be counted in light of the coming glory (v. 18). Therefore, three questions arise: (1) What precisely does Paul mean by παθήματα ?; (2) How do should we translate πρός ?; and (3) What does τὴν μέλλουσαν δόξαν ἀποκαλυφθυῆναι εἰς ἡμᾶς (lit. “the about to be revealed to us glory”) refer to? First, what does παθήματα refer to? “ From his understanding of the gospel Paul is convinced that the sufferings of the present time are only a very slight thing in comparison with the glory which is to be revealed.”  As stated above, these sufferings are none other than the sufferings that we share with Christ in the present age (τοῦ νῦν καιροῦ). The τοῦ νῦν καιροῦ qualifies the kind of sufferings we share—namely, they are “the present age sufferings.” Thus, the genitive is an attributive (i.e., Hebrew) genitive.  Because of this, παθήματα here refers to the whole spectrum of suffering that comes from living in a fallen and sinful creation,  just as Leon Morris asserts, There is no reason to think that the circumstances in which he wrote were especially significant, but this age is in marked contrast to the age to come. Paul holds that the believer must expect sufferings in this present age. There is suffering that is the direct result of our sinning and there is suffering that we endure for Christ’s sake, suffering that arises directly from our Christian profession in a world that rejects Christ. But beyond that, there is suffering that arises simply because we are in this imperfect world. Paul is realistic; there is no reason to think that Christians will be free from troubles in this present life. It is important, therefore, that they learn how to bear them.  Second, what are we to do with the tricky syntax of provoked by πρός? Most of the English translations (ESV, KJV, NKJV, HCSB, NASB, NET, NIV, NLT, RV) translate something along the lines of “not worth comparing ” in place of πρός . They are correct, for semantic range of this preposition includes in it the idea of comparing more than one entity.  Third, what does τὴν μέλλουσαν δόξαν ἀποκαλυφθυῆναι εἰς ἡμᾶς (lit. “the about to be revealed to us glory”) refer to? The point of Paul’s argument here lies in the force of παθήματα τοῦ νῦν καροῦ. The qualifying τοῦ νῦν καροῦ indicates that these sufferings are not minor in their afflictions. “The present age” is all-encompassing, and thus sets the stage for an even greater reality: glory. Specifically, a futuristic and anticipated glory. The article τὴν turns the phrase into a second attributive adjectival position,  so that it attaches the participle μέλλουσαν with δόξαν , while still allowing μέλλουσαν to function as a complimentary infinitive. Thus, literally rendered it is “the about to be revealed glory.” This glory is not a present glory, but one that is coming —i.e., futuristic. It is “ about to be revealed.” So, it is also a currently hidden glory—i.e., a glory that is to be revealed,” which is currently not visible today.  Regarding ἀποκαλυφθῆναι , Schreiner notes that “the idea is that the glory apprehends us and is bestowed upon us.”  Thus, the logic and of 8:18 is this: “There are certainly sufferings in this present lifetime, and they are most certainly difficult to bear, yet, even still , there is a far greater glory coming that surpasses the difficulty of all suffering—and when set side-by-side, because of the surpassing value of the promised glory, sufferings are not even worth the comparison. [v. 19–25] Verses 19–25 find their purpose in the explanatory γάρ . The γάρ of v. 19 does not signal an exclusive ground, but a restatement of v. 18.  The restatement is encoded in language of waiting ( ἀπεκδέχομαι ). Both the creation and the children of God await ( ἀπεκδέχεται ) the revelation/adoption of the children of God. The “ to be revealed glory” has a deep connection with the redemption of creation’s slavery (v. 21) and the redemption of man’s physical bodies (v. 23). vv. 19–22 In v. 19 I take the “eager expectation of creation” ( ἡ … ἀποκαραδοκία τῆς κτίσεως ) simply mean “creation’s eager expectation/longing.”  The ἀποκάλυψιν τῶν υἱων τοῦ θεοῦ is what creation eagerly longs for. Τῶν υἱων is difficult. If taken as an objective genitive,  then the “revelation” discloses the specific identities of all believers. This is likely not the case, since the object of ἀπεκδέχεται is ἀποκάλυψιν , the same root as the “to be revealed glory” in the previous verse—*αποκαλυ β .  That is, the glory ( δόξαν ) to be revealed in v. 18 is that which creation longs for in v. 19. This is further supported later in v. 21, when we see that creation will be freed from the slavery of corruption to enter into the freedom of the glory (δόξης) of God’s children. And Paul has just established that he and his audience are children of God (8:14, 15 [implied], 16, 17). So, the glory unto which the creation will be freed, is the very glory that will be revealed (ἀποκαλυφθῆναι) in v. 18, and is the ἀποκάλυψιν τῶν υἱῶν τοῦ θεοῦ in v. 19. Moreover, as we shall see in v. 23, like the creation waiting for this glory, Christians also await the redemption (ἀπολύτρωσιν) of their bodies—which is parallel to the creation being freed (v. 21).  That is, there is a dual-redemption happening in this text that both center on the to be revealed glory: creation awaits the day until they attain this glory; and likewise, true believers, who have the Holy Spirit, also await the day until they attain. Therefore, τῶν υἱων should be seen as a possessive genitive:  “the revelation which belongs to the sons of God.”  “Even though creation as a whole does not know the sons [as members of the family of God]… [and] that in due time all will be made plain [by God],”  I do not take ἀποκάλυψιν to refer to such a distinction in this context. Rather, not to be redundant, it refers to the splendorous and surpassing glory which will be revealed to God’s children. It is precisely this glory for which creation eagerly longs for. Verses 20–21 then ground ( γάρ ) v. 19. That is, the explain the reason why creations eagerly longs for this glory—namely, because God has subjected the whole of creation to “futility” (ματαιότητι). The subject of the passive ὑπετάγη is left unnamed, but clearly refers to God himself, since the verb refers to one authoritatively bringing one under submission.  The explicit implication, therefore, is that when Adam committed the first sin, God was controlling it all. Note the “not willingly, but because of the one who subjected it .” Διά + accusative frequently denotes the cause of the prepositional object.  In our case the object of this preposition is τόν ὑποτάξαντα—i.e., God himself, but it doesn’t denote cause. Rather, it conveys agency . The agent by whom the creation was subjected is the one who subjected it. Further, the point/counterpoint set in 20b–c, not only indicates the agency by which the creation was subjected, but primarily emphasizes the positively stated reality: “but owing to the one who subjected it” (20c).  If verse 20 is the activity of God’s subjecting the creation to futility, then v. 21 is the purpose of such subjection. At this point, God’s sovereignty is on full display. The purpose for which God subjected the world to futility—through the sin of Adam in the Garden—is hope . Thus, I take ἐφ᾽ἑλπίδι (v. 20d) to be adverbially modifying ὑπετάγη .  This accurately accounts for the Genesis 3 narrative, where God cursed the world (Gen 3:14–19), but provided the ultimate eschatological hope (Gen 3:15) for both the whole of creation and believer (though believers certainly do fit into the category of creation ). Verse 21 then indicates the content of such hope—namely, to be free from the slavery of corruption for (εἰς) [i.e., in order to share in ] the freedom of the glory of God’s children. Schreiner notes that the genitive τῆς φθρᾶς “has been explained as subjective … objective … appositional … and qualitative.”  Of all options, the objective genitive should be rejected, since a supposed subject [God] cannot enslave (δουλείας) corruption (φθορᾶς). The other three most accurately convey Paul’s meaning here  —namely, that creation awaits to free from a slavery inseparable of corruption and decay (cf. Gen 3:14–19). Whenever someone is freed from slavery, he is always transferred to some other economy. As indicated by the “telic εἰς ,”  this economy is τὴν ἐλευθερίαν τῆς δόξης τῶν τέκνων τοῦ θεοῦ . Τῶν τέκνων is a possessive genitive,  modifying τῆς δόξης , and τῆς δόξης functions as a genitive of source,  modifying τὴν ἐλευθερίαν . The logic of v. 21 is as follows: The creation itself will also be set free from slavery, which is accompanied always by corruption, for the goal of (εἰς) freedom, which is dependent upon/derived out of the glory which belongs to the children of God.  And the glory that belongs to the children of God is none other than the about to be revealed glory of v. 18, for which the creation eagerly awaits in v. 19. Verse 22 seems to function as a general statement, broadly explaining the inward disposition of creation in their current slavery—namely, their slavery causes them to groan and suffer.  To state vv. 19–21 in sum, the creation awaits with eager longing for the revelation which belongs to the sons of God because God subjected creation to futility, in order that it might hope in being freed from slavery—which always is accompanied by decay—to the freedom which only comes from the about to be revealed glory. vv. 23–25 Having already stated that creation waits for the revelation (i.e., the to be revealed glory of v. 18) of the sons of God, the reason for which it waits (namely, because God subjected it to futility), and the purpose of its subjection (namely to provide the hope of freedom), Paul then, in vv. 23–25, restates the realties described in vv. 19–22 along with an additional piece of information: the children of God also wait for the to be revealed glory. The structure of these verses is a large point/counterpoint construction wherein Paul emphasizes that the children of God, like creation, also wait for a freedom from corruption: the redemption (ἀπολύτρωσιν) of their physical bodies. Paul could have communicated his point clearly without the οὐ μόνον δέ , (“and not only this”), but without it, the rhetorical emphasis in positive statement ἀλλὰ καὶ … (“but also …”) would have been missed. Literally, οὐ μόνον δέ reads “and not only;” so one much make a sound judgment as to what Paul is referring to here. It is best to read the phrase as referring to all of vv. 19–22: “now not only [ does creation wait for the revelation of the sons of God ], but also we who have the first-fruit of the Spirit groan, while we await the adoption, the redemption of our bodies.”  The “first-fruit of the Spirit” signifies a future-orientated promise. The language of first-fruits carries overtones of OT harvests (Lev 23:10–14). Likewise, it carries a sense of anticipation, since first -fruits (which is explicitly conveyed in ἀπαρχή) are always succeed by more fruit.  The genitive τοῦ πνεύματος should be taken epexegetically.  Taken this way, πνεῦμα will not mean the Holy Spirit Himself as such, but rather His present work in us. The thought will be that the Spirit’s present work in us is the firstfruits, the foretaste and pledge of the full glory which God has in store for us.”  Likewise, Paul teaches the same doctrine in 2 Corinthians 1:22, 5:5, and Eph 1:14, yet instead of ἀπαρχή , Paul utilizes ἀρραβών (“deposit” or “down payment” or “pledge”). The idea is that with the coming of the Holy Spirit, Christ has inaugurated the final things to come(i.e., the to be revealed glory). So, not only does creation eagerly expect and wait for the glory that is to come, but also we who have the very seal of glory groan (στενάζομεν), while waiting for our redeemed bodies (v. 23). The same word στενάζω was just used in v. 22, thus explicitly drawing a connection between the experiences of creation and God’s children. Schreiner evidentally takes the participle ἀπεκδεχόμενοι as causal: “What are believers groaning? Because they await their adoption.”  This seems imprecise, for the reason why believers groan is due to the παθήματα of the present age (v. 18), thus drawing a parallel to the δουλείας τῆς φθορᾶς that creation groans for (v. 21). The participle should be taken temporal (“ while we wait”), since waiting is a direct response of living in a sinfully corrupted world, knowing that a transcendent glory is coming (v. 18). Both groaning and waiting are the proper responses to all suffering—yet, groaning’s object is a present-day reality, while waiting’s object is a promised (i.e., future) reality. Those who wait, trust in God’s to be revealed glory.  Τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν τοῦ σώματος ἡμπῶν is appositional to υἱοθεσίαν,  further describing what the adoption is like. The adoption that we wait for is a future-oriented redemption . Now we see fully the dual-liberation of creation and believers. While creation will be freed from the δουλείας τῆς φθορᾶς )v. 21), believers too will be freed from their corrupt bodies which only produce death (Rom 7:24). On a side note, there is a slight division among scholars as to what ἐν ἑαυτοῖς refers to in v. 23. Is the groaning a corporate groaning?  Or is it an individual groaning?  Though not a fierce division to begin with, distinction need not be made, for when believers groan individually, the entire body groans corporately. To state it another way, the groaning described here is applied to all Christians everywhere. So, even if Paul intended ἐν ἑαυτόῖς to be read individually, the church nevertheless groans corporately because the church is made up of individuals . It is here that we must again draw the connection between the to be revealed glory and these two liberations. Paul says in v. 18 that there is a glory (δόξαν) to be expected: a to be revealed (ἀποκαλυφθῆναι) glory. Then, in v. 19 we see that creation awaits ( ἀπεκδέχεται ) the revelation (ἀπο κ άλυψιν) of God’s sons. The implication—an implication that Paul makes explicit in v. 20–21— is that creation hopes for a future promise. Then in v. 21 he makes the implication explicit by calling their hope a hope for freedom from the slavery of corruption and into the freedom of the glory (δόξης) of God’s children. So, creation awaits (v. 19) to be freed from their current body and transferred into the glory (δόξης) of God’s children (v. 20), which I argue is the glory ( δόξαν ) promised in v. 18. Further, while creation waits, they groan (συστενάζει; v. 22). Likewise ( οὐ μόνον δε ἀλλὰ καὶ … [v. 23]), the children of God groan (στενάζομεν), and await (ἀπεκδεχόμενοι) for the redemption of their bodies. So, we see that creation waits for a freedom from their enslaved state, and the children await a redemption of their bodies. Moreover, creation waits to be transferred into the freedom of the glory of God’s children—i.e., the children’s redeemed bodies. Therefore, since we said that the glory for which creation waits in v. 21 is the to be revealed glory, the adoption/redemption for which the children wait likewise is the to be revealed glory of v. 18. Thus, the restatement of v. 18 (vv. 19–24) is clearly seen. The glory in v. 18 is a dual redemption: (1) creation’s body will be freed (i.e., redeemed) from slavery and transferred into the glory of God; and (2) The bodies of God’s children will likewise be redeemed by the coming glory. Then finally, in vv. 24–25, we see an explication of v. 23.  That is, Paul is explaining in greater detail the realities of v. 23. The dative τῇ … ἐλπίδι is tricky, but three noted contextual details will help to smooth this out: (1) The aorist ἐσώθημεν signals that the moment of salvation is in past-time;  (2) The lexical nature of ἐλπ ί ς is one of future orientation. That is to say, hope always looks ahead. There is no hoping in something that already occurred. Therefore, it awaits eagerly for future promises, confidently expecting the desired result;  and (3) Although the dative is incredibly flexible with its semantic domain,  the most reasonable solution is that this dative is functioning as a “modal” dative  —otherwise known as the dative of association.  Taken this way, hope then is accompanied by salvation. So, when the Lord saves a person for the first time, hope is inextricably connected. This is what I think Paul means by τῆ … ἐλπίδι . Schreiner asserts, “The dative ἐλπίδι should not be construed as instrumental (KJV),  for Paul’s intention here is not to identify the means by which salvation was obtained,”  but rather Paul’s main point in vv. 23–25 is to portray the “not yet” life of all believers  —namely, they groan and wait and hope for the adoption, the freeing of their bodies from the slavery of corruption. And Paul simply fleshes out for the Romans the nature of such hope. Hoping is not seeing. Here, βλέπω (in all three instances: βλεπομένη, βλέπει, βλέπομεν) refers to an apprehension of , or a possession of ,  their redemption.  That is, hope is abolished when the thing hoped for is achieved, or possessed, or reached. This is Paul’s point. And he cadences this section by saying that since believers hope for that which is unseen, they eagerly await (ἀπεκδεχόμεθα) through perseverance (ὑπομονῆς). Why through perseverance? Answer: Because there are present sufferings upon them (v. 18). For what are they awaiting? Answer: that which they hope for . What are they hoping for? Answer: the to be revealed glory . Schreiner winsomely summarizes: This last statement ties the section together in a profound way. The thesis of this section is that the future glories are so stunning and magnificent that they render present sufferings inconsequential. What Paul stresses in verses 23–25 is that the realization of this glory is still a future, although certain, prospect for believers. Given the wonder of the glory awaiting believers, they should endure present sufferings with eagerness, knowing that all suffering in the present can be borne because the reward before them is incomparably delightful.   So Morris, “There is much to be said for the view that the whole of verses 19–30 supports what has been said in verse 18,” Morris, The Epistle to the Romans , 320; “This sentence is introduced as support for the statement made in v. 18, but, once introduced, it itself requires expansion and elucidation. In fact, the whole of vv. 19–30 may be said to be in one way or another support for, and elucidation of, v. 18,” Cranfield, Epistle to the Romans , 410.  Cranfield, Epistle to the Romans , 408.  Wallace, Grammar, 86.  Contra Cranfield, Epistle to the Romans , 409: The παθήματα which Paul has in mind here are no doubt, in view of συμπάσχομεν in v. 17, those of Christians, though in vv. 19–22 the range of interest is much wider. They are τοῦ νῦν καιροῦ, that is, they are characteristic of the period of time which began with the gospel events and will be terminated by the Parousia.”  Morris, The Epistle to the Romans , 319; Regarding the contrast between παθήματα and δόξα , Stott helpfully clarifies: “First, the sufferings and the glory belong together indissolubly. They did in the experience of Christ; they do in the experience of his people also (17). It is only after we ‘have suffered a little while’ that we will enter God’s ‘eternal glory in Christ’, to which he has called us. So the sufferings and the glory are married; they cannot be divorced. They are welded; they cannot be broken apart … Secondly, the sufferings and the glory characterize the two ages or aeons. The contrast between this age and the age to come, and so between the present and the future, between the already and the not yet, is neatly summed up in the two terms pathēmata (sufferings) and doxa (glory) … Thirdly, the sufferings and the glory cannot be compared. I consider , writes Paul, expressing ‘a firm conviction reached by rational thought on the basis of the gospel’, that our present sufferings , or literally ‘the sufferings of the now time’, of this continuing age, painful though they are (as Paul knows well from experience), are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us (18). ‘Suffering’ and ‘glory’ are inseparable, since suffering is the way to glory (see verse 17), but they are not comparable. They need to be contrasted, not compared. In an earlier letter Paul has evaluated them in terms of their ‘weight’. Our present troubles, he declared, are ‘light and momentary’, but the glory to come is ‘eternal’ and ‘far outweighs them all’. The magnificence of God’s revealed glory will greatly surpass the unpleasantness of our sufferings,” Stott, The Message of Romans , 237.  See Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon: Founded upon the Seventh Edition of Liddell and Scott’a Greek-English Lexicon. , 7th ed., (Oxford: Oxford, 1997), 684; Cf. Cranfield, Epistle to the Romans , 408.  Wallace, Grammar , 618.  Contra Schreiner, Romans , 434; Rightly Morris, The Epistle to the Romans , 319–320; I will argue that this “ about to be revealed glory” is the content of what Paul “does not see” in vv. 24 and 25.  Schreiner, Romans , 434.  “How does verse 19 … advance the argument? The connection is not that we must suffer to inherit glory, nor is the emphasis on the call to endurance, nor on the certainty of future glory, and not even on the implications o the futurity of that glory. Instead Paul dazzles his readers with the attractiveness and beauty of the future glory … He does this via personification by saying that even the creation longs for the revelation of the sons and daughters of God,” ibid.  Regarding ἀποκαραδοκία , Vincent notes “ Only here and Philippians 1:20. From ἀπό away κάρα the head , δοκεῖν to watch . A watching with the head erect or outstretched. Hence a waiting in suspense . Ἀπό from , implies abstraction, the attention turned from other objects. The classical student will recall the watchman in the opening of Aeschylus’ “Agamemnon,” awaiting the beacon which is to announce the capture of Troy,” Vincent, Word Studie s, on Romans 8:19.  So Stott, The Message of the Romans , 238.  See William D. Mounce, The Morphology of Biblical Greek (Grand Rapids.: Zondervan, 1994), 312, n10.  Ἀπολύτρωσις conveys the notion of deliverance or release from a captive. On Rom 8:23, BDAG notes “ freeing of our body from earthly limitations or redemption of our body ,” “ἀπολύτρωσις,” BDAG, 117.  Wallace, Grammar , 109.  Yet, this revelation of glory does not belong to the sons of God in that that they own the glory (indeed, it is God’s glory), but in that the revelation is for the sons of God. It belongs to them because God will reveal it to them. To be more precise, the glory will overtake them and transform them (cf. v. 23d: τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν τοῦ σώματος ἡμῶν ).  Morris, The Epistle to the Romans , 321; cf. Stott, The Message of the Romans , 238.  “Subjecting the world to frustration [i.e., ματαιότητι ] connotes control over the world, whereas Adam lost dominion over the world by succumbing to sin,” Schreiner, Romans , 435.  “ διά ,” BDAG, 223.  See Runge, Discourse Grammar , 73–100 for an overview of point/counterpoint constructions.  So Schreiner, Romans , 436; Cranfield, The Epistle to the Romans , 414; Robert H. Mounce, Romans , NAC 27; ed. E. Ray Clendenen. (Nashville: B&H, 1995), 185; Contra Bruce, Romans , 173; Hodge, Romans , 274.  Schreiner, Romans , 436.  Subjective: “the corruption, which enslaves”; Appositional: “the slavery, i.e., corruption”; Qualitative: “the corruptive slavery.” There is semantic overlap between all three categories.  Harris, Prepositions and Theology , 88; Cf. n.52 above.  Wallace, Grammar , 81.  Ibid., 109.  Note the parallel in the function of the genitive τῶν τέκνων (“the glory which belongs to the children of God”) and the genitive τῶν υἱῶν in v. 19 (“the revelation which belongs to the sons of God”).  Just a word on tense-forms and the theory of the Greek verb encoding tense , as it relates to this verse. Since the imperfective συστενάζει and συνωδίνει are encoded in the present tense form. And since they are in the indicative mood, as claimed by some and denied by others, and thus encode present tense, the ἄχρι (“until”) complicates things. How can a present tense be employed “ until now?” Does the ESV rightly translate this phrase as “has been groaning …”? In short, what effect does the ἄχρι have on the present imperfective verbs συστεν άζει and συνωδ ίνει ? The term “pragmatic” can refer to a verb’s changeable function when considered in a given context. That is, a verb’s pragmatic function may change depending upon contextual influences, such as lexical nature of the verb (is it ongoing, such as “run” or “chew,” or punctiliar [one-time occurance] like “throw” or “fall”), temporal particles (e.g., νυν, οτε, τοτε, etc.), and morphological encoding (e.g., λυω, ελυ σ αν, λε λυ κ α, etc.). Therefore, what I think we see in Romans 8:22 is an outside influence upon συστενάζει and συνωδίνει by means of ἄχρι. That is, without the presence of ἄχρι, the verbs would simply indicate a progressive present-time. But throw ἄχρι (“until”) in the mix and what you get is a progressive past-time , which moves into the present-time, similar to the perfect. Thus, I think the ESV translation captures this phenomenon. Therefore, though still imperfective in aspect, the present-time, at least in this instance, possibly proves that the present-tense form has a pragmatic function of past-time—i.e., it can sometimes —if the weather is right—convey past-time (cf. the aorist εὐδόκησα in Mark 3:17—how it conveys a pragmatic present time).  “Now in verses 23–25 [Paul] says that the glory of the eschaton must be stupendous because eve nbelievers groan while waiting for it and long to experience the fulfillment of their hope, the redemption of their bodies,” Schreiner, Romans , 438.  “This consecrated the whole harvest, and it carries with it the through that there will be later fruits (otherwise there is no point in “first),” Morris, The Epistle to the Romans , 323.  So Schreiner, Romans , 438; Mounce, Romans , 185; Also Cranfield, Epistle to the Romans , 418: “[Appositive (i.e., epexegetic)] is probably to be preferred to [possessive]; but in any case they both yield substantially the same sense.”  Cranfied, Epistle to the Romans, 418; Cf. Bruce, Romans , 176.  Schreiner, Romans , 439.  Or, as another author has written: future grace . See John Piper, Future Grace: The Purifying Power of the Promises of God , rev. ed. (Colorado Spring, CO: Multnomah, 2012).  Schreiner, Romans , 439; Cranfield, Epistle to the Romans , 419.  Morris, The Epistle to the Romans , 324; Käsemann, Commentary on Romans , 237.  Schreiner, Romans , 438; Cranfield, Epistle to the Romans , 418–419.  Schreiner, Romans , 439; Cranfield, Epistle to the Romans , 419.  See Cranfield, Epistle to the Romans , 419.  “ ἐλπίς ,” BDAG, 319–320.  See Andreas J. Köstenberger, Benjamin L. Merkle, and Robert L. Plummber, Going Deeper with New Testament Greek: An Intermediate Study of the Grammar and Syntax of the New Testament (Nashville: B&H, 2016), 119–149 for a thorough and easy-to-apprehend overview of the dative case; Cf. Wallace, Grammar, 137–175.  Cranfield, Epistle to the Romans, 419; Käsemann, Commentary on Romans, 238.  Wallace, Grammar, 159.  So Morris, The Epistle to the Romans , 324; Vincent, Word Studies , on Romans 8:24; Mounce, Romans , 186.  Schreiner, Romans , 439.  “What is emphasized again is the ‘not yet’ character of Christian redemption …,” ibid., 440.  Ibid.  Ibid.  Ibid.