Romans 8:8–11
Romans 8:9-11
Since you are in the Spirit, though your body dies, you will be raised with Christ.
#Christ
Published July 13th, 2017
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D: 8:8–11
A: 8:8–11
A: 8:1–11
Notes
D: 8:8–11
scripturetext
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Romans 8:8-11
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δὲ
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δύνανται
οὐ
participle
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dblaccusative
ἀρέσαι
directobject
θεῷ
shelf
οἱ
ὄντες
prepphrase
ἐν
σαρκὶ
Ὑμεῖς
ἐστὲ
οὐκ
ἐν
σαρκὶ
ἐν
πνεύματι
ἀλλʼ
οὗτος
ἔστιν
οὐκ
αὐτοῦ
τις
ἔχει
οὐκ
πνεῦμα
Χριστοῦ
εἰ
πνεῦμα
οἰκεῖ
θεοῦ
ἐν
ὑμῖν
εἴπερ
δέ
τὸ
πνεῦμα
predicate
ζωὴ
διὰ
δικαιοσύνην
τὸ
σῶμα
νεκρὸν
διὰ
ἁμαρτίαν
Χριστὸς
ἐν
ὑμῖν
εἰ
μὲν
δὲ
ζῳοποιήσει
καὶ
τὰ
σώματα
θνητὰ
ὑμῶν
διὰ
πνεύματος
αὐτοῦ
τοῦ
ἐνοικοῦντος
ἐν
ὑμῖν
ἐγείρας
Χριστὸν
ἐκ
νεκρῶν
τὸ
πνεῦμα
οἰκεῖ
ἐν
ὑμῖν
τοῦ
ἐγείραντος
τὸν
Ἰησοῦν
εἰ
δὲ
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Romans 8:8
Romans 8:9
Romans 8:10
δὲ
δὲ
[OR]
οὗτος
ἔστιν
οὐκ
αὐτοῦ
τις
ἔχει
οὐκ
πνεῦμα
Χριστοῦ
εἰ
Romans 8:11
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Compl. Infin.
D.O.?
Instrumental (Wallace, 372)
1st class condition (Wallace, 693)
1st attributive adjective (Decker, 96; Wallace, 306)
See Digging Deeper
Spatial (Wallace, 372)
Genitive of source (Wallace, 109)
1st class condition (Wallace, 693)
1st class condition (Wallace, 693)
1st class condition (Wallace, 693)
Casual (Wallace, 369; Harris, 72–76)
Casual (Wallace, 369; Harris, 72–76)
Means
diagram
A: 8:8–11
editing
Romans 8:8-11
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οἱ δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ὄντες θεῷ ἀρέσαι οὐ δύνανται.
Ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σαρκὶ
ἀλλʼ ἐν πνεύματι,
alternative
εἴπερ πνεῦμα θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν.
conditional
εἰ δέ τις πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ οὐκ ἔχει ,
οὗτος οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῦ.
εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν ,
τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν διὰ ἁμαρτίαν
τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ διὰ δικαιοσύνην.
concessive
negativepositive
εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν ,
ὁ ἐγείρας Χριστὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῳοποιήσει καὶ τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν
διὰ τοῦ ἐνοικοῦντο ς αὐτοῦ πνεύματος ἐν ὑμῖν.
actionmanner
progression
ideaexplanation
Rom 6:6–11
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A: 8:1–11
Romans 8:1-11
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Οὐδὲν ἄρα νῦν κατάκριμα τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ.
ὁ γὰρ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠλευθέρωσέν σε ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ τοῦ θανάτου.
Τὸ γὰρ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου ἐν ᾧ ἠσθένει διὰ τῆς σαρκός, ὁ θεὸς
τὸν ἑαυτοῦ υἱὸν πέμψας ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκὸς ἁμαρτίας
καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας κατέκρινεν τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐν τῇ σαρκί,
series
ground
ἵνα τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ νόμου πληρωθῇ ἐν ἡμῖν τοῖς μὴ κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦσιν
ἀλλὰ κατὰ πνεῦμα.
οἱ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ὄντες τὰ τῆς σαρκὸς φρονοῦσιν,
οἱ δὲ κατὰ πνεῦμα τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος.
τὸ γὰρ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς θάνατος,
τὸ δὲ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος ζωὴ καὶ εἰρήνη•
διότι τὸ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς ἔχθρα εἰς θεόν,
τῷ γὰρ νόμῳ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται,
οὐδὲ γὰρ δύναται•
inference
οἱ δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ὄντες θεῷ ἀρέσαι οὐ δύνανται.
Ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σαρκὶ
ἀλλʼ ἐν πνεύματι,
εἴπερ πνεῦμα θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν.
εἰ δέ τις πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ οὐκ ἔχει,
οὗτος οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῦ.
εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν,
τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν διὰ ἁμαρτίαν
τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ διὰ δικαιοσύνην.
εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν,
ὁ ἐγείρας Χριστὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῳοποιήσει καὶ τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν διὰ τοῦ ἐνοικοῦντος αὐτοῦ πνεύματος ἐν ὑμῖν.
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Notes
GRAMMAR (See dot notes in diagram) EXEGESIS It is implied in the text that those who are "in ( ὄντες) the Spirit" actually can please God, because Paul explicitly juxtaposes those in the Spirit with "those in the flesh" (v. 8, 9)—and they are unable to please God. That is, since "those in the flesh are unable to please God," and since Paul juxtaposes the two types of people, and since the flesh has just been established as hostility towards God (8:7) and the Spirit life and peace (8:6), then the unsaid truth is those in ( ὄντες) the Spirit can please God —provided they meet one condition (9c). And that condition is this: the Spirit of God must dwell in them . Those who are in ( ὄντες ) the Spirit can only be in ( ὄντες ) the Spirit provided that the Spirit of God dwells in them. Therefore, what does this mean about their ability to please God? Simply put, they can only please God with the help of God’s indwelling Spirit. That is, the only person who can please God is God’s Spirit. And the way people please God is only by God’s indwelling Spirit in them. But it isn’t just in them. Paul’s use of the participle ὄντες from εἰμί signals that this indwelling is a whole-being transformation: [1] “But you are not [ being ] in the flesh, but [you are being ] in the Spirit” (9a–b). The δέ (9d) signals some sort of development in Paul’s thought. Here he adds another layer to his argument. [2] Interestingly, Paul parallels indwelling the Spirit of God (9c) with the Spirit of Christ (9d). In 9d, ἔχει should be read as οἰκεῖ in v. 9c. That is, for one to have ( ἔχει ) the Spirit of Christ (9d) is for the Spirit of Christ to dwell (οἰκεῖ) in him. And so Paul presents a second condition: “ If anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, this person is not from him [i.e., Christ]. The αὐτοῦ is a genitive of source, [3] and it refers back to Χριστοῦ . Thus, for anyone to be from Christ that person must have his Spirit. Once again, Paul employs the developmental δέ (10a), adding yet another layer to his argument. Whereas the first condition centered itself on “the Spirit of God ” (9c), and the second on “the Spirit of Christ ” (9d), this third condition only mentions Christ (10a). Literally, “Now if Christ in you,” Paul omits the implied οἰκεῖ . We know this because the first two conditions (and the fourth, as we shall see) refer to the Spirit dwelling in the Romans. Verse 10a and the Problem of “Body” ( σῶμα ) What should be clear almost immediately is that these two clauses are a part of a first-class conditional clause, [4] and that the main point of the verse is 10c. To be more precise, the μὲν of 10b ought to be taken as concessive, [5] highlighting the reality of 10c: “Now if Christ dwells in you, although the body is dead because of sin, the Spirit is life because of righteousness.” [6] Verse 10b: τό σῶμα The relationship between Christ’s indwelling and the body being dead because of (διά + accusative), or with reference to , [7] sin is perplexing. What does it mean that the body is dead because of sin if (or because ) Christ dwells in you? Furthermore, what does σῶμα refer to in this clause? And what does διὰ ἁμαρτίαν mean? To be sure, we cannot understand the relationship between Christ’s indwelling and the body being dead because of , or with reference to , sin until we define what σῶμα means in this context. There are two interpretations that scholars debate. One interpretation says that σῶμα in 8:10 refers to a figurative death. [8] The other says that σῶμα here refers to a physical death. [9] I will now attempt to unpack both views one at a time, and justify why I hold to the view that I do. View #1: σῶμα in Romans 8:10 Refers to a Figurative Body Of the seven commentaries that I have read on this verse, only Ernst K äsemann, F. F. Bruce, and John Calvin take σῶμα to refer to a figurative body. Calvin sums up the view: “the word body signifies that gross mass which is not yet purified by the Spirit of God from earthly dregs, which delight in nothing but what is gross.” [10] But how do these three commentators reach this conclusion? Although Bruce and Calvin give no ground for their conclusions, K äsemann grounds his conclusion in two other uses of σῶμα in Romans: 6:6 and 7:24. [11] Ernst K äsemann’s Reasoning for a Figurative Reading of σῶμα He believes the σῶμα is νεκρόν because of believer’s union with Christ in baptism, which is death ( εἰς τὸν θάνατον ; Rom 6:3). And although he doesn’t explicitly list the proof-texts (he lists only Rom 6:6), K äsemann is clearly referring to 6:3–4: Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death ? We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death , in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life. He believes the “body” of sin is a figurative body that refers to the wills and cravings of the sinful flesh. Accordingly, he supports his claim, though with minimal explanation, with σῶμα in Romans 7:24: “Wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death ?” He equates τοῦ σώματος τοῦ θανάτου τούτου with σάρξ . [12] Thus, the σῶμα in 8:10 he equates with σάρξ , “that gross mass which is not yet purified by the Spirit of God from earthly dregs, which delight in nothing but what is gross.” [13] The “body” in Romans 8:10 is thus figurative. View #2: σῶμα in Romans 8:10 Refers to an Literal Body Hodge, Schreiner, Stott, and Morris hold to this view. [14] This view’s support comes from the immediate context and the natural semantics of σῶμα —i.e., it’s literal gloss “body,” [15] although the immediate context bears more weight. In the very next verse (v. 11), Paul employs another first-class conditional clause (“ if / since the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you …”), which is subordinate to the main point: “the one who raise Jesus from the dead will make alive also your mortal bodies (τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμων). The parallels between the first-class conditions referring to the Holy Spirit, [16] and the main point being the Spirit bringing forth life (vv. 10c and 11) are compelling. Further, the implication in v. 11 is that τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμων is already dead and thus will be made alive. This fits well with σῶμα νεκρὸν in 10b. Schreiner sums up this view: The Spirit indwells believers and they are no longer slaves of sin, yet they still die because of sin [i.e., physical death]. Sin is no longer the master over believers, but this does not mean that sin is nonexistent. The physical body of believers (which includes the whole person) indicates that Christians are still part of the old age, even though they possess the new-age gift of the Spirit. Full redemption will come at the day of resurrection when all sin and weakness will be left behind. [17] Taking a Single Stand: σῶμα Refers to a Physical Body In short, I originally stood where K äsemann, Bruce, and Calvin stand—taking σῶμα figuratively. And although K äsemann lists compelling proof-texts (Rom 6:6; cf. 6:1–4; 7:24)—texts that initially led me to this interpretation—I now see a few problems with it. Having established that believers are united with Christ in death—i.e., spiritual baptism—Paul in 6:6 goes on to say that the reason παλαιὸς ἡμῶν ἄνθρωπος was crucified—i.e., baptized (Rom 6:3, 4, 5)— with Christ in death was ἵνα καταργηθῇ τὸ σῶμα τῆς ἁμαρτίας (“that the body of sin might be abolished”). The verb καταργἐω typically refers to an act of abolishing, invalidating , or inexisting . [18] Semantically, this runs very close to the death of baptism. [19] However, we must distinguish between “our old man” and “the body of sin.” They seem to be two different entities because Paul says “ that ” ( ἵνα ) in v.6. It would not make sense for Paul to say, “X happens in order that X might happen,” taking “our old man” to equal “the body of sin.” So, to trace the logic of v. 6, the old man was crucified, that (ἵνα) the current sinful body would not be enslaved to the insatiable passions and cravings of sin. That what τὸ σῶμα τῆς ἁμαρτίας likely refers to—i.e., it is an attributive genitive: sinful body . [20] Therefore, there is a mysterious union between our actual body and inward passions of sin. It’s a perplexing thought to imagine that a physical body houses spiritual—in this case, sinful —realities. To put it simply, as long as we are in this body , we will be sinning to some degree because the body we are in is a “body of sin .” Also, K äsemann’s equating σῶμα in 7:24 (and ultimately 8:10) with σάρξ is fallible because the σῶμα of Rom 7:24 is Pauls’ actual body, which houses his sin , that he laments. When he says, “Who will deliver me from this body of death,” Paul is really talking about his physical body. If he were not, he would not have said that the “law of sin” dwells in his “ members ” ( μέλεσίν ), just one verse prior (7:23). And we know that “members” refers to physical body parts. Likewise, if he were not, he would not have used σάρξ in v. 25, but σῶμα . Therefore, my interpretation lies with view #2, for the reasons stated above. May God help us all grasp his word. It is possible. For, we have the mind of Christ (1 Cor 2:16). For the sake of space and time, I will just briefly note that I take πνεῦμα (“Spirit”) in 10c to refer to the Holy Spirit. Every other use of πνεῦμα , thus far in the immediate context, refers to the Him (8:2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10a [21] ). Further, as Schreiner helpfully points out, ζωή (“life”) is always translated “life,” and not once does it mean “alive.” [22] Thus, those who see πνεῦμα referring to the human Spirit have a problem in their exegesis, [23] since “according to this construction ζωή means ‘alive.’” [24] Finally, we should see the glory of the three conditional statements in 9c, 10a, and 11a. The glory is not only that believers themselves depend utterly on the Holy Spirit for spiritual life and freedom, but that the Holy Spirit is referred to here as πνεῦμα θεοῦ (9c), πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ (9d), Χριστός (10a), and τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν (11a). This Spirit is God’s Spirit, Christ’s Spirit, Christ himself , and the one who raised Jesus from the dead (i.e., God). Though there is distinction, Paul makes no distinction. Just as Bruce says, Practically, be it noted, ‘if Christ is in you’ is equivalent to ‘if the Spirit of God really dwells in you’ (verse 9; cf. verse 11), even if the two may be distinguished theoretically. It is by the Spirit that the indwelling presence of the risen Christ is conveyed and maintained. Similarly, no practical distinction can be drawn between being ‘in Christ Jesus’ (verse 1) and ‘in the Spirit’ (verse 9). [25] [1] This participle is explicitly used in v. 8 and implied in v. 9, just like v. 5. [2] So Leon Morris, “Paul proceeds to consider another possibility …” (Leon Morris, The Epistle to the Romans , Pillar New Testament Commentary [Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987], 308). [3] Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: an Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996), 109. [4] See Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament , (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996), 693. [5] So Schreiner, Romans , Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1998), 414–415; F. F. Bruce, Romans: An Introduction and Commentary , Tyndale New Testament Commentary (Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1985), 165. [6] Schreiner holds to the position that εἰ here is a “fulfilled condition” and should therefore be translated as “since,” Schreiner, Romans , 414; So John Stott, “These two ‘ifs’ do not express any doubt about the fact of the indwelling (they could be paraphrased, ‘if, as indeed is the case’), but they point to its results,” John R. W. Stott, The Message of Romans The Bible Speaks Today, ed., John R. W. Stott (Leicester, England: InterVarsity, 1994), 225. [7] “If one cannot accept this premise [that διά + accusative is to be taken causal], then διά with the accusative means ‘with reference to’ … [i.e.,] the body is dead since baptism so far as sin is in question , but the Spirit who is given us makes alive so far as concerns righteousness described in 6:14ff.,” Ernst K äsemann Commentary on Romans , ed. Geoffrey W. Bromiley, trans. Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980), 224. [8] So K äsemann, Ibid.; Bruce, Romans , 165; John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries (Complete) , trans. John King (Edinburgh: Calvin Translation Society, 1847), on Romans 8:10. [9] So Leon Morris, The Epistle to the Romans, Pillar New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987), 309; Charles Hodge, Romans, (Banner of Truth Trust: Edinburgh, UK, 1835, 1864, 1972), 259; Schreiner, Romans, 414; Stott, The Message of Romans, 226. [10] Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries, on Romans 8:10; Cf. K äsemann, Romans, 224: “If one does not psychologize, the only possible reference is to the death of the body of sin effected in baptism.” [11] “In contrast to that [i.e., “the divinely given Spirit”] the σῶμα , called νεκρόν , can only be the body of sin (6:6) or death (7:24), i.e., σάρξ ,” K äsemann, Romans, 224. [12] Ibid. [13] Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries , on Romans 8:10. [14] Hodge, Romans , 259; Schreiner, Romans , 414; Stott, The Message of Romans , 226; Morris, The Epistle to the Romans , 165. [15] So Hodge, “That σῶμα here is to be taken in its literal sense is plain, because such is the proper meaning of the word. It is rarely, if at all, used in the figurative sense in which σάρξ ( flesh ) so often occurs,” Hodge, Romans , 259. [16] To be precise, the two conditions in vv. 9 and 10 refer to the Spirit God, the Spirit of Christ, and Christ himself as three distinct persons (the condition in v. 11 refers back to God). Yet, although distinct, these three titles refer to the same Spirit—the Holy Spirit. [17] Schreiner, Romans , 414. [18] “ καταργέω ,” BDAG, 525. [19] This is what I think K äsemann’s whole ground hangs on. [20] See Wallace, Grammar , 86–87. [21] Here Χριστὸς is equivalent to the “Spirit of God” in 9c. [22] Schreiner, Romans , 415; So Morris, “Further, Paul does not say ‘is alive’ but ‘is life.’ This is something that can be said of the Holy Spirit, but the human spirit is not ‘life,’” Morris, The Epistle to the Romans , 309. [23] Those who hold to this are Hodge, Romans , 259; Stott, The Message of Romans , 226; Bruce, Romans , 165; [24] Ibid., 414. [25] Bruce, Romans , 165–166.
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