Main point summary
Under the old law, we would seek retribution but under the law of Christ, we display mercy and grace.
From this passage, we can see two things very clearly. First, the standard of perfection is unobtainable for us. Earlier in verse 20, Jesus said that in order to enter the kingdom of heaven our righteousness must exceed that of the Pharisees. In verse 48 he will set the standard at perfection, even as God is perfect. In these 5 verses, Jesus is showing how this perfection plays out when we are wronged. We are to respond graciously and not to seek our own. We recognize then that we cannot attain to this perfection and are in desperate need of the only one who can, Jesus. Secondly, we see the nature of the new covenant. We see that under the new law of Christ we are to love even our enemies with a love that does not seek its own (1 Cor. 13:5). We are to respond graciously, allowing the Judge of all the Earth to bring perfect justice in his perfect time. We can respond to others in this way because this is the way that God has responded to us. Even when we were enemies of God, he sent his Son to die in our place that we might be reconciled to him.
h “You have heard that it was said,
Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη• ὀφθαλμὸν ἀντὶ ὀφθαλμοῦ καὶ ὀδόντα ἀντὶ ὀδόντος.
y ‘An eye for an eye
and a tooth for a tooth.’
But I say to you,
ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν μὴ ἀντιστῆναι τῷ πονηρῷ• ἀλλʼ ὅστις σε ῥαπίζει εἰς τὴν δεξιὰν σιαγόνα [σου], στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην•
z Do not resist the one who is evil.
But a if anyone b slaps you on the right cheek,
turn to him the other also.
And z if anyone would sue you and take your tunic, 1
καὶ τῷ θέλοντί σοι κριθῆναι καὶ τὸν χιτῶνά σου λαβεῖν, ἄφες αὐτῷ καὶ τὸ ἱμάτιον•
let him have your cloak as well.
And if anyone c forces you to go one mile,
καὶ ὅστις σε ἀγγαρεύσει μίλιον ἕν, ὕπαγε μετʼ αὐτοῦ δύο.
go with him two miles.
d Give to the one who begs from you,
τῷ αἰτοῦντί σε δός, καὶ τὸν θέλοντα ἀπὸ σοῦ δανίσασθαι μὴ ἀποστραφῇς.
and e do not refuse the one who would borrow from you.
This diagram of the greek is not meant to be instructive. It is merely an attempt.
I'm not sure how to diagram this infinitive. The object is in the dative but it feels like it is the direct object which is why I diagrammed it this way.