c On the evening d of that day, the first day of the week ,
Οὔσης οὖν ὀψίας τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ τῇ μιᾷ σαββάτων
e the doors being locked where the disciples were
καὶ τῶν θυρῶν κεκλεισμένων ὅπου ἦσαν οἱ μαθηταὶ
f for fear of the Jews, 1
διὰ τὸν φόβον τῶν Ἰουδαίων,
Jesus came and stood among them
ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ ἔστη εἰς τὸ μέσον
and said to them, g “ Peace be with you.”
καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς• εἰρήνη ὑμῖν.
When he had said this,
καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν
h he showed them his hands and his side .
ἔδειξεν τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τὴν πλευρὰν αὐτοῖς.
Then i the disciples were glad
ἐχάρησαν οὖν οἱ μαθηταὶ
when they saw the Lord .
ἰδόντες τὸν κύριον.
Jesus said to them again,
εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς [ὁ Ἰησοῦς] πάλιν•
“ Peace be with you.
As j the Father has sent me,
καθὼς ἀπέσταλκέν με ὁ πατήρ,
k even so I am sending you.”
κἀγὼ πέμπω ὑμᾶς.
And when he had said this,
καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν
he l breathed on them and
ἐνεφύσησεν καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς•
said to them, m “ Receive the Holy Spirit.
λάβετε πνεῦμα ἅγιον•
n If you forgive the sins of any,
ἄν τινων ἀφῆτε τὰς ἁμαρτίας
they are forgiven them;
if you withhold forgiveness from any,
ἄν τινων κρατῆτε
it is withheld.”
Now o Thomas , one of the Twelve, called the Twin, 1
Θωμᾶς δὲ εἷς ἐκ τῶν δώδεκα, ὁ λεγόμενος Δίδυμος,
was not with them
οὐκ ἦν μετʼ αὐτῶν ὅτε
when Jesus came.
So the other disciples told him, “ We have seen the Lord.”
ἔλεγον οὖν αὐτῷ οἱ ἄλλοι μαθηταί• ἑωράκαμεν τὸν κύριον.
But he said to them, p “Unless I see in his hands the mark of the nails,
ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς• ἐὰν μὴ ἴδω ἐν ταῖς χερσὶν αὐτοῦ τὸν τύπον τῶν ἥλων
and place my finger into the mark of the nails,
καὶ βάλω τὸν δάκτυλόν μου εἰς τὸν τύπον τῶν ἥλων
and place my hand into his side,
καὶ βάλω μου τὴν χεῖρα εἰς τὴν πλευρὰν αὐτοῦ,
I will never believe.”
οὐ μὴ πιστεύσω.
Eight days later,
Καὶ μεθʼ ἡμέρας ὀκτὼ
his disciples were inside again, and Thomas was with them .
πάλιν ἦσαν ἔσω οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ Θωμᾶς μετʼ αὐτῶν.
q Although the doors were locked ,
ἔρχεται ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῶν θυρῶν κεκλεισμένων
Jesus came and s tood among them and said, q “ Peace be with you.”
καὶ ἔστη εἰς τὸ μέσον καὶ εἶπεν• εἰρήνη ὑμῖν.
Then he said to Thomas,
εἶτα λέγει τῷ Θωμᾷ•
r “ Put your finger here,
φέρε τὸν δάκτυλόν σου ὧδε
and see my hands;
καὶ ἴδε τὰς χεῖράς μου
and put out your hand, and place it in my side.
καὶ φέρε τὴν χεῖρά σου καὶ βάλε εἰς τὴν πλευράν μου,
Do not disbelieve,
καὶ μὴ γίνου ἄπιστος
but believe .”
Thomas answered him, s “ My Lord and my God!”
ἀπεκρίθη Θωμᾶς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ• ὁ κύριός μου καὶ ὁ θεός μου.
Jesus said to him, “Have you believed
λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς• ὅτι ἑώρακάς με πεπίστευκας;
because you have seen me ?
ὅτι ἑώρακάς με
t Blessed are those who have not seen
μακάριοι οἱ μὴ ἰδόντες
and yet have believed .”
u Now Jesus did many other signs v in the presence of the disciples,
Πολλὰ μὲν οὖν καὶ ἄλλα σημεῖα ἐποίησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐνώπιον τῶν μαθητῶν [αὐτοῦ],
which are not written in this book;
ἃ οὐκ ἔστιν γεγραμμένα ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τούτῳ•
w but these are written
ταῦτα δὲ γέγραπται
so that you may x believe
that Jesus is the Christ, y the Son of God,
ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ἐστιν ὁ χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ,
and that by believing
καὶ ἵνα πιστεύοντες
z you may have life a in his name.
ζωὴν ἔχητε ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ.
What is immediately noticeable is how quickly Jesus’ disciples started worshiping Jesus after his resurrection.  This encounter occurs somewhere between a week after the resurrection (John 20:26 with 21:1) and the end of forty days (Acts 1:8-9).  This is noted by Larry Hurtado, Honoring the Son , XX Jesus was raised to earth. Jesus was raised to earth, not to heaven. We should not confuse the resurrection and the ascension. The grave of Joseph of Arimathea was empty. After his resurrection, Jesus’s body was clearly transformed, but it was still the very same physical body that was laid in the tomb. This resurrection is the firstfruits of the general resurrection ( 1 Cor. 15:20, 23 ). Our bodies will also be raised in a way that will allow us to live in the new heavens and the new earth. We do not know all the details of what this will look like, but we know that “we shall be like him” ( 1 John 3:2 ). Christianity is a resurrection religion.
EI: Jesus appears to his disciples to convince them of the eyewitness testimonies so that they too see and believe, commission them to carry on his mission so that hearers/reader of the eye witness accounts might too see and believe. The narrative is broken into two sections: 19-23, Jesus' first encounter with the disciples to convince them that Mary's eyewitness testimony is true and commission them 24-31, Jesus' second encounter with the disciples to convince Thomas and promise of blessing to those who believe the disciple's eyewitness testimony. 30-31, summarize the purpose of chapter 20 and the gospel. That evening the disciples are holed up for fear what happened to Jesus happen to them. They fear their lives. They are disillusioned still and uncertain of what had happened/is happening? Yet John and Mary had seen and believed and Mary had told these disciples about seeing the resurrected Christ. Jesus shows up amongst them having come through the door becasue of his resurrected body. It is bodily yet has been transformed. He wants to alleviate their fears two ways, with the greeting and pronouncement of peace. Frist fear of suffering and death at the hands of the Jewish leaders and secondly removed guilt and shame for having abandoned him when he was arrested. He returns as promised (14:267; 16:33). He also provides more evidence to them by showing them his wounds. The disciples rejoice that Mary's testimony is true, he is alive. Then John gives us his version of the commissioning of the disciples. Because of his resurrection and soon to be exaltation/glorification, as the Father has sent him, so he now sends them building on what he has already said (14:26-27; 15:26-27; 17:18). As the Son came to seek and save the lost so too we are to seek and save the lost. Central to the nature and purpose of God is the mission of God. Jesus has risen and given them ample proof so that they see and believe, he is wanting his disciples to take up the same mission so others see and believe too. The trinity overflows in mission to include his people into their fellowship and love and joy. Then he breathed on them. The coming or pouring out of the Spirit is tied to his death, resurrection and exaltation/glorification. He can and does pour out the Spirit because he has vindicated himself and been exalted to the right hand of Father with all power and authority. The mission of God is a Spirit-empowered mission objectively (communication of gospel) and subjectively (reception of the gospel). He can send his disciples out in mission because he has accomplished the forgiveness of sin; our role is to declare that forgiveness based upon the acceptance or rejection of the gospel (3:36). Hence the Spirit is the agent of creation and the new creation, the establishment kingdom and kingdom people. Later, Thomas shows up having not encountered Jesus himself. The other disciples testify they have seen the Lord but he too wants evidence as they received to believe (doubting Thomas is the unfair title). The next Sunday the doors still locked (fearful still). He again for the third time, greets them with Peace be with you. Jesus speaks to Thomas first and the one recorded conversation in this encounter. Put your finger here (where?), look at my hands, and place your hand in my side. And the climax of the chapter, if not John is Thomas's confession of Jesus as My Lord and God. Then Jesus proclaims a blessing to those who have not seen but believed the eye witness accounts of the disciples. It is for this very reason, John wrote, that reader believes that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God and be believing have life in his name. Observations: It is interesting that the disciples have seen the resurrected Jesus, been commissioned yet still holing up. When he initially greets the disciples the first time, he greets them with peace to comfort them rather than rebuke for abandoning and denying him. John's focus is on the person encountering Jesus and their response to him. Questions: Why peace a three time? How is it tied to the promise of leaving his peace with them, in 14:27 The breathing of the Spirit does not change things like Acts 2; they are still holed up and not taken up his mission. How does Thomas story connect to the commissioning? What other conversations did he have with them on that first evening? The resurrected body has open or healed wounds? How strong are the creation and Adam themes here?