First they y led him to z Annas,
καὶ ἤγαγον πρὸς Ἅνναν πρῶτον•
for he was the father-in-law of a Caiaphas,
ἦν γὰρ πενθερὸς τοῦ Καϊάφα,
who was high pries t that year.
ὃς ἦν ἀρχιερεὺς τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἐκείνου•
It was Caiaphas who had advised the Jews
ἦν δὲ Καϊάφας ὁ συμβουλεύσας τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις
b that it would be expedient that one man should die for the people.
ὅτι συμφέρει ἕνα ἄνθρωπον ἀποθανεῖν ὑπὲρ τοῦ λαοῦ.
c Simon Peter followed Jesus , and so did another disciple.
Ἠκολούθει δὲ τῷ Ἰησοῦ Σίμων Πέτρος καὶ ἄλλος μαθητής.
Since that disciple was known to the high priest ,
ὁ δὲ μαθητὴς ἐκεῖνος ἦν γνωστὸς τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ
he entered with Jesus
καὶ συνεισῆλθεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ
into the courtyard of the high priest,
εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως,
d but Peter stood outside at the door.
ὁ δὲ Πέτρος εἱστήκει πρὸς τῇ θύρᾳ ἔξω.
So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest,
ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ μαθητὴς ὁ ἄλλος ὁ γνωστὸς τοῦ ἀρχιερέως
went out and spoke to the servant girl who kept watch at the door,
καὶ εἶπεν τῇ θυρωρῷ
and brought Peter in.
καὶ εἰσήγαγεν τὸν Πέτρον.
e The servant girl at the door said to Peter,
λέγει οὖν τῷ Πέτρῳ ἡ παιδίσκη ἡ θυρωρός•
“You also are not one of this man’s disciples, are you?”
μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν εἶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου;
He said, “ I am not.”
λέγει ἐκεῖνος• οὐκ εἰμί.
Now the servants 1 and officers had made a charcoal fire,
εἱστήκεισαν δὲ οἱ δοῦλοι καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ἀνθρακιὰν πεποιηκότες,
because it was cold,
ὅτι ψῦχος ἦν,
and they were standing and warming themselves.
καὶ εἱστήκεισαν ἐθερμαίνοντο• ἦν δὲ
f Peter also was with them,
καὶ ὁ Πέτρος μετʼ αὐτῶν ἑστὼς
standing and warming himself.
g The high priest then questioned Jesus
Ὁ οὖν ἀρχιερεὺς ἠρώτησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν
about his disciples
περὶ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ
and his teaching.
καὶ περὶ τῆς διδαχῆς αὐτοῦ.
Jesus answered him,
ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς•
“I have spoken h openly i to the world. ~ teaching
ἐγὼ παρρησίᾳ λελάληκα τῷ κόσμῳ,
I have always taught in
ἐγὼ πάντοτε ἐδίδαξα
synagogues and in the temple ,
ἐν συναγωγῇ καὶ ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ,
where all Jews come together.
ὅπου πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι συνέρχονται,
j I have said nothing in secret.
καὶ ἐν κρυπτῷ ἐλάλησα οὐδέν.
Why do you ask me?
τί με ἐρωτᾷς;
Ask those who have heard me what I said to them; ~disciples
ἐρώτησον τοὺς ἀκηκοότας τί ἐλάλησα αὐτοῖς•
they know what I said .”
ἴδε οὗτοι οἴδασιν ἃ εἶπον ἐγώ.
When he had said these things,
ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰπόντος
one of the officers standing by struck Jesus with his hand,
εἷς παρεστηκὼς τῶν ὑπηρετῶν ἔδωκεν ῥάπισμα τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰπών•
saying, k “Is that how you answer the high priest?”
οὕτως ἀποκρίνῃ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ;
Jesus answered him,
ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς•
“If what I said is wrong,
εἰ κακῶς ἐλάλησα,
bear witness about the wrong;
μαρτύρησον περὶ τοῦ κακοῦ•
but if what I said is right,
εἰ δὲ καλῶς,
why do you strike me?”
τί με δέρεις;
l Annas then s ent him bound to l Caiaphas the high priest.
ἀπέστειλεν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ Ἅννας δεδεμένον πρὸς Καϊάφαν τὸν ἀρχιερέα.
m Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself .
῏Ην δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος ἑστὼς καὶ θερμαινόμενος.
So they said to him, “You also are not one of his disciples , are you?”
εἶπον οὖν αὐτῷ• μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ εἶ;
He denied it and said, “ I am not.”
ἠρνήσατο ἐκεῖνος καὶ εἶπεν• οὐκ εἰμί.
One of the servants of the high priest,
λέγει εἷς ἐκ τῶν δούλων τοῦ ἀρχιερέως,
a relative of n the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked,
συγγενὴς ὢν οὗ ἀπέκοψεν Πέτρος τὸ ὠτίον•
“ Did I not see you o in the garden with him?”
οὐκ ἐγώ σε εἶδον ἐν τῷ κήπῳ μετʼ αὐτοῦ;
Peter again denied it ,
πάλιν οὖν ἠρνήσατο Πέτρος,
and p at once a rooster crowed.
καὶ εὐθέως ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν.
MIAS: Jesus is the faithful witness who coming work on the cross will bring forgiveness, remove guilt, and empower us to overcome sin; while Peter is a faithless witness who shows that human traits are insufficient to overcome sin and Satan. Or Jesus' faithfulness to the Father's mission is contrasted to Peter's faithlessness and shows the great need he/we have for Jesus and his work on our behalf. Restatement/argument : Jesus has been arrested and taken to the unofficial high priest, Annas, and then the official high priest, Caiaphas. This was not a by the books official Jewish trial but one designed to get evidence against Jesus. This is moving as God intends and Caiaphas had predicted (14b). Other gospel accounts tell us that the disciples abandoned Jesus in the garden. Yet Peter and John follow at a distance, showing their concern and loyalty to Jesus. John was known by the high priest thus able to enter into the inside courtyard where the proceedings were occurring but PEter was outside. Because of John's favor with the high priest, he spoke to the servant girl guarding the door and brought Peter into the proceedings. The servant girl asked, PEter if he was one of Jesus disciples also (she knows John is). Peter denied it the first time. We begin to see Jesus sovereignty over the event not only of his death but also Peter's denial. The staff made a charcoal fire as it was a cold night; Peter was standing among them warming himself. Annas began questioning Jesus about his disciples and his teaching. The official protocol was that witnesses would be brought forward and questioned, not the defendant. Jesus responds that his teaching has been public, in the synagogues and temples where al the Jews gather. Ask them or my disciples, they all know my teaching. You should know my teaching. As this an officer of the high priest stuck Jesus for speaking this way to the high priest. Jesus is defending himself by requesting a fair and just trial, bring forth witnesses. If he is wrong then say so; if not then what right have you to strike me? But they do not want a fair trial, want evidence to justify their arrest and subsequent crucifying him. Then they sent him bound to Caiaphas, the official high priest. Simultaneously (18d-e) Peter is standing by the fire warming himself among the high priest staff. Now the staff asks him, are you also (know john is?) one of his disciples? Peter denied it a second time. Not one of the servants, a relative of the guy who Peter attacked and cut off his ear, who has personal knowledge, didn't I see you in the garden with him? Again Peter, denied it a third time and then the rooster crowed as Christ predicted. Not only did Jesus predict the number of times he would deny him but they sequence of events, the rooster crowing. Explanation : The two accounts of questioning, Jesus and Peter are parallel and simultaneous. Jesus is the faithful witness while Peter is the faithless witness who denies his Lord and rabbi and friend. It is Jesus continued faithfulness that will accomplish the work of redemption, saving those the Father has given him. Peter was so confident, proclaiming allegiance by death and now shows such great cowardice. How is Peter defined? By his confidence in the upper room (Mat 26:33-35); his bravery with his dagger; or his cowardice in his denials. By all of those - he was impulsive, brave, loving, confident, loyal, and very weak and sinful. He did not realize how much he needed Jesus, depended upon Jesus. He also did not realize how strong/force Satan would be. Jesus told him that Satan had demanded to sift the disciples like wheat but also promised he would turn back (Luk 23:22). But that night he realized both - Satan is a foe to be reckoned with and Jesus is the only means by which he can overcome Satan. His own bravery or resolve is not sufficient. The devastation Peter felt as the rooster crowed is a far cry from the celebration mood of the Passover MEal. But Jesus would strengthen him, empower him to turn back and he did. His failure would turn to forgiveness and then faithfulness again and be a source of strength for other disciples. Peter is not ultimately defined by his failure but by being forgiven. While Peters failure demonstrates his need for redemption and the power of the new covenant as Jesus promised in the Passover Meal. When he went to the cross by way of arrest, he paid for sin, PEters denial, Peter guilt, He would not be defined by the Peter the Denier as Judas but as Peter the Forgiven. Structure : This is a part of a larger narrative that builds to the cross. John is building up tension and highlighting Jesus faithfulness throughout the course of the events and here specifically paralleling the tragic unfaithfulness of Peter, the leader of the disciples.