q Then they led Jesus r from the house of Caiaphas
Ἄγουσιν οὖν τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ Καϊάφα
to s the governor’s headquarters. 1
εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον•
It was early morning.
ἦν δὲ πρωΐ•
They themselves did not enter the governor’s headquarters ,
* καὶ αὐτοὶ οὐκ εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον,
t so that they would not be defiled,
ἵνα μὴ μιανθῶσιν
u but could eat the Passover.
ἀλλὰ φάγωσιν τὸ πάσχα.
v So Pilate went outside to them and said, “ What accusation do you bring against this man?”
ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Πιλᾶτος ἔξω πρὸς αὐτοὺς καὶ φησίν• τίνα κατηγορίαν φέρετε [κατὰ] τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου;
They answered him, “ If this man were not doing evil,
ἀπεκρίθησαν καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ• εἰ μὴ ἦν οὗτος κακὸν ποιῶν,
we would not have delivered him over to you.”
οὐκ ἄν σοι παρεδώκαμεν αὐτόν.
Pilate said to them, w “ Take him yourselves
εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος• λάβετε αὐτὸν ὑμεῖς
and judge him
καὶ ... κρίνατε αὐτόν.
by your own law.”
κατὰ τὸν νόμον ὑμῶν κρίνατε αὐτόν .
The Jews said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death.”
εἶπον αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι• ἡμῖν οὐκ ἔξεστιν ἀποκτεῖναι οὐδένα•
x This was to fulfill the word that Jesus had spoken y to show by what kind of death he was going to die.
ἵνα ὁ λόγος τοῦ Ἰησοῦ πληρωθῇ ὃν εἶπεν σημαίνων ποίῳ θανάτῳ ἤμελλεν ἀποθνῄσκειν.
z So Pilate entered his headquarters again
Εἰσῆλθεν οὖν πάλιν εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον ὁ Πιλᾶτος
and called Jesus and said to him ,
καὶ ἐφώνησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ•
a “ Are you the King of the Jews?”
σὺ εἶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων;
Jesus answered, “Do you say this of your own accord,
ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς• ἀπὸ σεαυτοῦ σὺ τοῦτο λέγεις
or did others say it to you about me?”
ἢ ἄλλοι εἶπόν σοι περὶ ἐμοῦ;
Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew?
ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Πιλᾶτος• μήτι ἐγὼ Ἰουδαῖός εἰμι;
Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered you over to me.
τὸ ἔθνος τὸ σὸν καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς παρέδωκάν σε ἐμοί•
What have you done?”
Jesus answered, b “ My kingdom c is not of this world.
ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς• ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου•
If my kingdom were of this world,
εἰ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἦν ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμή,
d my servants would have been fighting ,
οἱ ὑπηρέται οἱ ἐμοὶ ἠγωνίζοντο [ἂν]
that e I might not be delivered over to the Jews.
ἵνα μὴ παραδοθῶ τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις•
But now my kingdom is not from the world. ”
νῦν δὲ ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐντεῦθεν.
Then Pilate said to him, “ So you are a king?”
εἶπεν οὖν αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος• οὐκοῦν βασιλεὺς εἶ σύ;
Jesus answered , f “ You say that I am a king.
ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς• σὺ λέγεις ὅτι βασιλεύς εἰμι.
g For this purpose I was born
ἐγὼ εἰς τοῦτο γεγέννημαι
and for this purpose h I have come into the world—
καὶ εἰς τοῦτο ἐλήλυθα εἰς τὸν κόσμον,
i to bear witness to the truth.
ἵνα μαρτυρήσω τῇ ἀληθείᾳ•
j Everyone who is k of the truth
πᾶς ὁ ὢν ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας
l hears listens to my voice.”
ἀκούει μου τῆς φωνῆς.
Pilate said to him, “ What is truth ?”
λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος• τί ἐστιν ἀλήθεια;
After he had said this,
Καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν
m he went back outside to the Jews
πάλιν ἐξῆλθεν πρὸς τοὺς Ἰουδαίους
and told them, n “I find no guilt in him.
καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς• ἐγὼ οὐδεμίαν εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ αἰτίαν.
o But you have a custom that I should release one man for you
ἔστιν δὲ συνήθεια ὑμῖν ἵνα ἕνα ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν
at the Passover .
ἐν τῷ πάσχα•
So do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?”
βούλεσθε οὖν ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἰουδαίων;
They cried out again , p “ Not this man,
ἐκραύγασαν οὖν πάλιν λέγοντες• μὴ τοῦτον
ἀλλὰ τὸν Βαραββᾶν.
Now Barabbas was a robber. 1
ἦν δὲ ὁ Βαραββᾶς λῃστής.
Exegetical Idea: Jesus the true and innocent King is rejected by the world in the greatest act of evil and injustice. It is in this injustice that his kingship and kingdom is secured and he reigns thru Gods word of truth. It is an eternal kingdom which will ultimately conquer all who oppose his rule. or The trial of Jesus before Pilate reveals the true nature of Jesus' kingship, not like an earthly king, his rule is though the word of truth that gathers and shapes his people. Questions: Seems like the presentation of the king in 19 fits with this narrative and probably why I included it. It is the fitting/final conclusion to the trial before Pilate and rejection of their presented king. explanation: Scene 1, Jews PResent Jesus to Pilate/Rome (28-32) John does not give the details of the Sanhedrin court but Jesus brought directly to Pilates Jerusalem headquarters. Pilate is in Jerusalem to enforce Roman rule during Passover week/Feast of Unleavened Bread. The Jewish leader would not go inside the palace for fear of defiling themselves and not be able to participate in Feast. Ironic that they are meticulously following the law yet do not see that the law points to the kingship of Jesus, his word of truth fulfills the intent of the law, and his miracles attest to these truth claims. They are blind to their own Sin and hypocrisy in killing their innocent King. Since the Jews will not come in, Pilate comes outside and opens the proceedings by asking for a formal charge form the Jewish leaders. Rome and Jews are colluding; Pilate knew this was coming as he dispatched the soldier for the arrest but he is not going to just give his stamp of approval. Was Pilate saving face or exerting Roman rule to show who is in control or just being more formal than the Jews were in their questioning of Jesus? But they would not have delivered Jesus to Rome/Pilate if he were not doing evil. Are they surprised or caught off guard by the question or not expecting formality but process expedited? But they need Rome to have Jesus crucified. They could only execute Jesus if they were able a desecration against the temple, but were unable. So, they are forced to rely on the Romans to have Jesus executed by crucifixion. This would not be easy as Roman authorities tended to shy away from religious disputes which Pilate tries to do. The Jews then clearly expose their intent, they want capital sentance, crucifixion, which they could not do without Rome. Crucifixion was the most brutal death available and they want to prove that Jesus is cursed by God (Deut 22:13; Gal 3:13). This fulfilled Jesus' words as being lifted up in death (12:32-33). The hand of God is in these proceedings. Jewish law stated death by stoning; Roman law by crucifixion. The irony is that the brutality of the cross was not so much in physical suffering of the act but the suffering of the wrath and forsakenness which God ordained to reconcile enemies to himself. They sought to squelch truth and glory by crucifixion and it is that very attempt at squelching that truth and glory are put on display. The irony is that they are hell bent on hanging him on that tree all the while they are fulfilling God's sovereign plan ( Acts 2 /4). Scene 2, Pilate Questions Jesus about his kingship (33-38) Pilate goes back inside his headquarters again, a symbol of Roman rule and strength. Presumably, the official charge by the Sanhedrin is that Jesus is a king, a rival to Ceaser. Or he is just probing deeper? Jews needed to show how dangerous Jesus was to Rome to secure the Roman death sentence. So Pilate asks Jesus himself, are you the king of the Jews? Jesus wants to know the source of this question if this is his conclusion or that of the Jews? Do you see me as a threat to Rome/Ceaser as a rival ( 1:49 ; 6:15 ; 12:13 ) ? Pilate takes offense/irritated (?). Am I a Jew, in other words, I don't want to be in the middle of this, it is your own people and leaders who delivered/handed you over (18:5; ~ Judas) to me. What is it that you have done that they have such animosity toward you (1:9-13; 3:19-21)? Jesus is a king but his kingdom is not of this world (from outside; above; 6:15); ie it is a spiritual, not political or military kingdom. If it were of this world, I would use force and fighting like the kingdoms of this world so that I not be handed over to the Jews. In fact, I freely gave myself up without a fight! I am not a rival to Ceaser nor a threat to Rome. This does not mean that Jesus kingdom is not active in the world today and will one day overcome all the kingdoms of the world (Dan 2:44; Rev 11:15-19). It is from above and so conquers by different means, the Spirit (3:3-8), the word of truth gathers those given to him by the Father by means of the Spirit. Pilate, so you are indeed a king? ~Yes I am. But let me tell you the kind of king I am. I was born, I have come into this world from above (1:1-2; 8:23) to be a king who testifies to the truth (1:14; 4:24; 14:6). My kingdom is a kingdom of truth, a saving king (3:3-8) who testifies to the truth, to God's self-disclosure in the Son who is truth and glory (1:18, 17:25-26, etc). All who are given to Jesus, evidenced by wanting the truth, hear my voice, word of truth and see my kingdom (3:3-5). Is Pilate of the truth, on the side of truth? Apparently, Pilate is not interested in truth or the kingdom Jesus speak about. Scene 3; Pilate Finds Jesus Innocent (38-40) After his conversation with Jesus, Pilates verdict is that he is innocent. Pilate finds him as no threat to Rome or a rival to Ceasar yet leaves the outcome to the Jews by letting them choose who they will release. Do you want me to release to you the king of the Jews? They reject his verdict, and his choice, instead requesting the release of Barabbas the son of the Father. An insurrectionists who is a threat to Rome! the innocent King. The irony is that Jesus is present as Israel's king, innocent of the charges, not a threat to Rome and they get what they want, a death sentence while an insurrectionist, messiah figure, a violent criminal and threat to Rome is set free. Structure: The trial before Rome is part of the larger story arc building tension to the tragedy of the cross. In the eyes of the world; they win and in the eyes of the disciples their hopes are crushed. Yet in the plan of God the cross the loss and seemingly weakness of God displays his glory as it accomplishes the greatest good for humanity by defeating sin and death and satan which is demonstrated to the world in the resurrection.