Jesus Teaches in Capernaum
Καὶ εἰσπορεύονται εἰς Καφαρναούμ•
到 了 迦 百 農 、
εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν
耶 穌 就 在 安 息 日 進 了 會 堂 教 訓 人 。
Temporal of 21c
καὶ εὐθὺς τοῖς σάββασιν ... ἐδίδασκεν.
καὶ ἐξεπλήσσοντο ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ•
眾 人 很 希 奇 他 的 教 訓 ．
ἦν γὰρ διδάσκων αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐξουσίαν ἔχων
因 為 他 教 訓 他 們 、 正 像 有 權 柄 的 人 、
Ground of 22a | Contrast
καὶ οὐχ ὡς οἱ γραμματεῖς.
不 像 文 士 。
Jesus Casts Out an Unclean Spirit
Καὶ εὐθὺς ἦν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν ἄνθρωπος ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτῳ
在 會 堂 裡 有 一 個 人 、 被 污 鬼 附 著 ．
他 喊 叫 說 、
拿 撒 勒 人 耶 穌 、
τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ;
我 們 與 你 有 甚 麼 相 干 、
ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς;
你 來 滅 我 們 麼 ．
οἶδά σε τίς εἶ, ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ θεοῦ.
我 知 道 你 是 誰 、 乃 是 神 的 聖 者 。
καὶ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς
耶 穌 責 備 他
不 要 作 聲 、
καὶ ἔξελθε ἐξ αὐτοῦ.
從 這 人 身 上 出 來 罷 。
καὶ σπαράξαν αὐτὸν τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἀκάθαρτον
污 鬼 叫 那 人 抽 了 一 陣 瘋 、
Manner of 26c
καὶ φωνῆσαν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ
大 聲 喊 叫 、
ἐξῆλθεν ἐξ αὐτοῦ.
就 出 來 了 。
Falling Action & Denouement
καὶ ἐθαμβήθησαν ἅπαντες
眾 人 都 驚 訝 、
ὥστε συζητεῖν πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς
以 致 彼 此 對 問
Result of 27a
τί ἐστιν τοῦτο;
這 是 甚 麼 事 、
διδαχὴ καινὴ κατʼ ἐξουσίαν•
是 個 新 道 理 阿 ．
καὶ τοῖς πνεύμασιν τοῖς ἀκαθάρτοις ἐπιτάσσει,
他 用 權 柄 吩 咐 污 鬼 、
καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ.
連 污 鬼 也 聽 從 了 他 。
καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἡ ἀκοὴ αὐτοῦ εὐθὺς πανταχοῦ εἰς ὅλην τὴν περίχωρον τῆς Γαλιλαίας.
耶 穌 的 名 聲 、 就 傳 遍 了 加 利 利 的 四 方 。
Jesus Heals Peter's Mother-in-Law
ἐκ τῆς συναγωγῆς ἐξελθόντες
他 們 一 出 會 堂 、
Temporal of 29b
Καὶ εὐθὺς ... ἦλθον εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν Σίμωνος καὶ Ἀνδρέου μετὰ Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωάννου.
就 同 著 雅 各 約 翰 、 進 了 西 門 和 安 得 烈 的 家 。
ἡ δὲ πενθερὰ Σίμωνος κατέκειτο
西 門 的 岳 母 、
正 害 熱 病 躺 著 ．
Ground of 30a
καὶ εὐθὺς λέγουσιν αὐτῷ περὶ αὐτῆς.
就 有 人 告 訴 耶 穌 。
耶 穌 進 前
Temporal of 31b
καὶ ... ἤγειρεν αὐτὴν
扶 他 起 來 、
κρατήσας τῆς χειρός•
拉 著 他 的 手 、
Temporal of 31d
καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτὴν ὁ πυρετός,
... 熱 就 退 了 、
καὶ διηκόνει αὐτοῖς.
他 就 服 事 他 們 。
Situational point of departure; secondary events Later, we learn that Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath. Teaching on the Sabbath was something he was meant to do? Even though it's plural, it doesn't mean that it's many Sabbaths (BDAG entry for Sabbath)
Change of deictic center
Capernaum was a small city by the lake (sea of Galilee) with a prosperous fishing industry and an active trade route to the neighbouring tetrarchy of Philip. It is interesting that there is no record of Jesus visiting the two Hellenistic (Greek) cities that dominated the province of Galilee politically: Sepphoris and Tiberias. Jesus sought a more traditionally Jewish population. (France)
Who gave Jesus permissions to teach in the synagogue, or was it a custom in the time that anyone could teach? Jesus' reputation likely preceded him so that the rulers of the synagogues allowed him to teach (France) What did Jesus teach that astounded them? (At the same time, if God taught us, how would we not be astounded?
Switch to third person singular
Why did the scribes not teach "with authority?" Was it because their authority came from the text and not from themselves?
Why "their?" Why not just "synagogue?' Is it because Mark is speaking to a Roman audience, and therefore these synagogues are not places that Romans go to?
This is the main point of the story: Jesus can command the demons and they obey him
It seems like the crowd still fails to see who Jesus is: they see his teaching as "new" and to command the demons is later explained by the pharisees as a power from the Devil (Mark 3:22)
Amazement is not faith. Jesus gets the same reaction when he comes to his own hometown and there we hear more of the kinds of questions they have (Mark 6:2). But here at least they recognise that Jesus has authority.
Mark 1:39 shows that Jesus going to the synagogues and casting out demons became a regular part of his ministry in this region. The report will precede him into the other regions where he will go. Matt 4:23 says the same, but includes diseases and preaching.
The demons know who Jesus is! They can see spiritually reality as it is, even if they do not follow him... (see Mark 1:34, James 2:19) The demons are not afraid of mere human... (Acts 19:15)
- unclean and evil spirits are synonymous; - cause various disabilities, diseases, depression, but are not equal the diseases they cause; - seem particularly concentrated at the time of Jesus; - for those who seek them, can give them clairvoyance and telepathy (the ability to see spiritual realities); - cast out in Jesus' name; - they are led by Satan
2nd time Nazareth is mentioned (Mark 1:9). What's important about associating Jesus with Nazareth?
"Jesus of Nazareth" alone is not Jesus' true identity. The demon reveals Jesus' true identity as the Holy One of God. Holy as opposed to unclean. Holy as of the Holy Spirit.
Are there any references to the OT? Does this echo "the Holy One of Israel" in Isaiah?
The unclean spirit is not speaking singularly, but on behalf of other demons. This is a formula of disassociation (see 2 Sam 16:10; 19:22) and can mean "Go away" (Judg 11:12; 1 Kgs 17:18)
We're not told what happened to the man
Death or eternal destruction (BDAG)
Mark 1:21–39 shows a day in Jesus' ministry: he arrives at Capernaum (we don't know when); then goes to Simon & Andrew's house; then at night the sick and demon-possessed are brought to him; and finally in the morning he sets out to other regions in Galilee to proclaim the good news. And so we learn about the main components of Jesus' ministry: proclamation, teaching, exorcism, healing. This is a glimpse into "the kingdom of God" that he proclaimed in Mark 1:13–14.
Why this reaction?
What does it tell us about Jesus? Jesus is more powerful than the demons. He has authority , as the crowd notices later one. When the kingdom comes, the usurpers are thrown out? See Mark 3:27 According to France, Jesus' exorcism was unlike any other. He did not use any incantation, but simply commanded.
Why does Jesus not want them to speak?
"Despite the great amount of material referring to exorcism/demons in the literature surveyed, there are very few narratives available. It is mainly in the NT, particularly in the Gospel of Mark, that most of the narratives are found.… Even fewer exorcistic figures, to whom exorcism stories are clearly ascribed, can be found. Of these, one is obviously a legendary figure (Solomon), another is apparently semi-legendary (Apollonius), still another is referred to only once (Eleazar), while another despite his fame for dealing with demons is never shown to be exorcizing a demon (Ḥanina). The only exorcistic figure in the extant literature to whom a number of exorcism stories are ascribed and related in detail is the biblical figure of Jesus of Nazareth." (E.F. Kirschner, Place , 29)
Although "preaching" or "proclaiming" can be done by other people than Jesus (like John the Baptist, Jesus' disciples, and even individuals who benefited from his miracles), teaching is only ascribed to Jesus and, by permission, to his disciples. Should this change our view of preaching at church?
A scribe was a secretary or some sort of notary who was present in the signing of agreements. The priests had their own literate leaders. It was later in the exile that priests became scribes, as specialist scribes for the Babylonian empire. They became the religious leaders, responsible for preserving and interpreting the Law. Also called lawyers. They were part of the Pharisees, though distinct.
Not a term used in exorcism. Based on hebrew word ga'ar, used in OT for God's 'subjugating word' again his enemies
This is the main question that the other characters need to solve in the rest of this narrative. Who is Jesus to me?
Even though 1:27d-e is the same as 1:22b-c, here they notice something new: Jesus not only teaches with authority, his authority extends even to the demons.
According to France, this verb combined with "pros eautous" denotes an intense discussion, not simply a quiet or civil discussion
Simon Peter is already married!
Is that in reaction to the exorcism they just saw? Did they assume that if Jesus can exorcise a demon, then he can heal a person?
This word was used in 1:18 and 1:20 when the disciples left their nets or their father. It will be used later on to talk about permission and forgiveness.
Peter's home most likely located here! https://madainproject.com/octagonal_church_(capernaum)
Καὶ εἰσπορεύονται εἰς Καφαρναούμ• καὶ εὐθὺς τοῖς σάββασιν εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν ἐδίδασκεν.
καὶ ἐξεπλήσσοντο ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ• ἦν γὰρ διδάσκων αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐξουσίαν ἔχων καὶ οὐχ ὡς οἱ γραμματεῖς.
Καὶ εὐθὺς ἦν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν ἄνθρωπος ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτῳ καὶ ἀνέκραξεν
λέγων• τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ; ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς; οἶδά σε τίς εἶ, ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ θεοῦ.
καὶ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγων• φιμώθητι καὶ ἔξελθε ἐξ αὐτοῦ.
καὶ σπαράξαν αὐτὸν τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἀκάθαρτον καὶ φωνῆσαν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ ἐξῆλθεν ἐξ αὐτοῦ.
καὶ ἐθαμβήθησαν ἅπαντες ὥστε συζητεῖν πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς λέγοντας• τί ἐστιν τοῦτο; διδαχὴ καινὴ κατʼ ἐξουσίαν• καὶ τοῖς πνεύμασιν τοῖς ἀκαθάρτοις ἐπιτάσσει, καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ.
καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἡ ἀκοὴ αὐτοῦ εὐθὺς πανταχοῦ εἰς ὅλην τὴν περίχωρον τῆς Γαλιλαίας.
Καὶ εὐθὺς ἐκ τῆς συναγωγῆς ἐξελθόντες ἦλθον εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν Σίμωνος καὶ Ἀνδρέου μετὰ Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωάννου.
ἡ δὲ πενθερὰ Σίμωνος κατέκειτο πυρέσσουσα, καὶ εὐθὺς λέγουσιν αὐτῷ περὶ αὐτῆς.
καὶ προσελθὼν ἤγειρεν αὐτὴν κρατήσας τῆς χειρός• καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτὴν ὁ πυρετός, καὶ διηκόνει αὐτοῖς.