Mark Study
Mark 1:1
Shared December 28th, 2019
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1:1–13
1:1–13
NT
Mark 1:1-13
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Introduction & Prophecies about John the Baptist
Ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ [υἱοῦ θεοῦ].
神 的 兒 子 、 耶 穌 基 督 福 音 的 起 頭 、
Καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν τῷ Ἠσαΐᾳ τῷ προφήτῃ•
正 如 先 知 以 賽 亞 書 上 記 著 說 、 〔 有 古 卷 無 以 賽 亞 三 字 〕
ἰδοὺ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου,
『 看 哪 、 我 要 差 遣 我 的 使 者 在 你 前 面 、 預 備 道 路 .
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ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου•
φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ•
在 曠 野 有 人 聲 喊 著 說 、
ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου,
預 備 主 的 道 、
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εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ,
修 直 他 的 路 。 』
Character Intro: John the Baptist
ἐγένετο Ἰωάννης [ὁ] βαπτίζων ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ
照 這 話 、 約 翰 來 了 、 在 曠 野 施 洗 、
καὶ κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν.
傳 悔 改 的 洗 禮 、 使 罪 得 赦 。
καὶ ἐξεπορεύετο πρὸς αὐτὸν πᾶσα ἡ Ἰουδαία χώρα
猶 太 全 地 、 和 耶 路 撒 冷 的 人 、 都 出 去 到 約 翰 那 裡 、
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καὶ οἱ Ἱεροσολυμῖται πάντες,
καὶ ἐβαπτίζοντο ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ Ἰορδάνῃ ποταμῷ
在 約 但 河 裡 受 他 的 洗
ἐξομολογούμενοι τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν.
承 認 他 們 的 罪 、 ... 。
καὶ ἦν ὁ Ἰωάννης ἐνδεδυμένος τρίχας καμήλου καὶ ζώνην δερματίνην περὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ
約 翰 穿 駱 駝 毛 的 衣 服 、 腰 束 皮 帶 、
καὶ ἐσθίων ἀκρίδας καὶ μέλι ἄγριον.
喫 的 是 蝗 蟲 野 蜜 。
The Message of John the Baptist
Καὶ ἐκήρυσσεν λέγων•
他 傳 道 說 、
* ἔρχεται ὁ ἰσχυρότερός μου ὀπίσω μου,
有 一 位 在 我 以 後 來 的 、 能 力 比 我 更 大 、
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κύψας
彎 腰
οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς ... λῦσαι τὸν ἱμάντα τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτοῦ.
我 就 是 ... 給 他 解 鞋 帶 、 也 是 不 配 的 。
ἐγὼ ἐβάπτισα ὑμᾶς ὕδατι,
我 是 用 水 給 你 們 施 洗 、
αὐτὸς δὲ βαπτίσει ὑμᾶς ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ.
他 卻 要 用 聖 靈 給 你 們 施 洗 。
Character Intro: Jesus, the Son of God
Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις
那 時 、
ἦλθεν Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ Ναζαρὲτ τῆς Γαλιλαίας
耶 穌 從 加 利 利 的 拿 撒 勒 來 、
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καὶ ἐβαπτίσθη εἰς τὸν Ἰορδάνην ὑπὸ Ἰωάννου.
在 約 但 河 裡 受 了 約 翰 的 洗 。
ἀναβαίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος
他 從 水 裡 一 上 來 、
καὶ εὐθὺς ... εἶδεν σχιζομένους τοὺς οὐρανοὺς
就 看 見 天 裂 開 了 、
καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα ὡς περιστερὰν καταβαῖνον εἰς αὐτόν•
聖 靈 彷 彿 鴿 子 、 降 在 他 身 上 。
καὶ φωνὴ ἐγένετο ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν•
又 有 聲 音 從 天 上 來 說 、
σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός,
你 是 我 的 愛 子 、
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ἐν σοὶ εὐδόκησα.
我 喜 悅 你 。
The Spiritual Battle of Jesus
Καὶ εὐθὺς τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτὸν ἐκβάλλει εἰς τὴν ἔρημον.
聖 靈 就 把 耶 穌 催 到 曠 野 裡 去 。
καὶ ἦν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ τεσσεράκοντα ἡμέρας
他 在 曠 野 四 十 天
πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ σατανᾶ,
受 撒 但 的 試 探 .
καὶ ἦν μετὰ τῶν θηρίων,
並 與 野 獸 同 在 一 處 .
* καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι διηκόνουν αὐτῷ.
且 有 天 使 來 伺 候 他 。
Participant orientation
Secondary Event
Setting; Also refers to Israel's 40 years of wandering in the desert (Deut 8:2, 16)
Setting; Wild animals were probably hostile to humans and Jesus was needing protection from them
Clause Focus
In Matt, the words "beginning" were used for the same occasions: - The creation of male and female in the beginning (Matt 19:4, 8; Mark 10:6); - The beginning of birth pains (Matt 24:8; Mark 13:8); - N0 great tribulation since the beginning of creation (Matt 24:21; Mark 13:9) Mark and John start their gospels with this word (John 1:1), and Genesis starts with this word as well (Gen 1:1)
Mark 1:14-15 says that this is the Gospel: - The time is fulfilled; - The kingdom of God is at hand These are the two reactions: - Repent - Believe in the Gospel
Messenger, not "angel"?
Why does Mark translate it "prepare" when the Septuagint and the Hebrew version of Mal 3:1 says, "who looked down/faced the road?"
The Septuagint version of Isa 40:3 says, "the path of our God."
Why does Mark quote Isaiah when the first line comes from Malachi? Maybe because Malachi was loosely quoting or paraphrasing from Isaiah?
The Hebrew version of Isa 40:3 uses the word "to look down/face" as well, like in Malachi. But the Septuagint translates it "prepare." It's possible that there is a meaning of "facing" with intent of "preparing."
Chāiqiǎn
Shǐzhě
Shēng hǎn
Jordan River = river that led them to the Promise Land
This word is not used very often. It seems to mean, "divulge a truth hidden inside."
Acts 2:38 Peter calls for a similar baptism for repentance.
The same kind of garment that Elijah wore (2 Kgs 1:8) See also Mal 4:5–6)
What drew the people to John the Baptist? Why was repentance and baptism important before Jesus came?
Chuán huǐ
Shè
Luòtuó máo
Yāo shù
Huángchóng yě mì
The believers are baptised with the Holy Spirit at Pentecost (Acts 1:5) The one who pours the Spirit is usually attributed to God: Isa 32:15; Ezek 36:26–27; 39:29; Joel 2:28–29)
John exhibits proper humility
John's appearance marks the beginning of the end. He's not a prophet like others, but is the prophet predicted by Isaiah and Malachi, after the age of prophets has ceased according to some Jewish beliefs.
Why did Jesus have to get baptised? He did not have to repent from sin
Was this a new revelation for Jesus? From other accounts, no, but here it seems it is.
The one who will baptise with the Holy Spirit has come?
This episode is attested to in all four gospels (Matt 3:13–17; Luke 3:21–22; John 1:32–34). What's different is that in the other Gospels it's more clear that other people, at least John, were witnesses to this event. But here it is almost told entirely from Jesus' perspective only.
This also ties with Ex 23:20 when God sends an angel to prepare the way in the wilderness
John was baptising Jews. Ritual baths in the OT were done repeatedly for cleanliness. But this was a one-time ritual signifying a commitment to something. Both Jews and Gentiles were required to do it.
Ná sā lēi
Liè kāi
Fǎngfú
Gēzi
Cuī
Yěshòu
Yī chù
Cìhòu
I thought Jesus was already in the wilderness?
We do not have a high priest who doesn't understand our temptations (Heb 2:18; 4:15); how can I understand other people's temptations and be able to strengthen them?
The other time Jesus' identity is declared by God is in Mark 9:7 the story of the transfiguration. At the end of the story, a similar "tearing" occurs in Mark 15:38–39 and Jesus' identity is declared by the centurion!
Nazareth was an insignificant town in the northern regions, in Galilee, whereas this event happened in the southern regions. This means Jesus was a stranger from an unknown place. Hardly a flattering fact for the "stronger one" to come.
It has been 400 years since the Spirit was seen anywhere in Israel! This must have been an incredible event.
When Jesus comes into the scene, Mark doesn't introduce him immediately as the "stronger one." In fact, he uses the same language as in v.5 where the crowd comes from a region to be baptised by John. Some interpret this to show that Jesus was identifying himself with the people and that this was the reason why he got baptised. If he is to be our saviour, he needs to identify with us, with our sins, even though he is sinless, called vicarious sin-bearing (Isa 53).
Isa 64:1 The "rending" of the heavens signal that God has come down. Also, the word "to render" here is only used one more time at the end of the Gospel in Mark 15:38–39
This is a fulfilment of Isaiah's prophecies that the Messiah will have the Spirit descend on him. (Is. 11:2; 42:1; 61:1)
Why a dove? This phrase could either mean that he descended in a "dove-like" way, or he descended in the form of a dove. No special significance has been found for this symbol. The most persuasive one seems to be that in Gen 1:2, the Spirit was seen "hovering" over the waters like a bird (the Hebrew gives that impression, but not the LXX)
From the beginning of the Gospel of Mark, Jesus' identity is made clear. Even when later Jesus asks the disciples about his identity, the reader is supposed to know, though Jesus' contemporaries may not. Echoes Ps 2:7 and Isa 42:1, but even more so Gen 22:2 LXX Isaac as Abraham's only beloved son, who is about to be sacrificed. (See also 2 Sam 7:14)
Probably providing food to Jesus, as they did to Isaiah (1 Kgs 19:4–8)
Ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ [υἱοῦ θεοῦ].
Καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν τῷ Ἠσαΐᾳ τῷ προφήτῃ• ἰδοὺ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου, ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου•
φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ• ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου, εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ,
ἐγένετο Ἰωάννης [ὁ] βαπτίζων ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ καὶ κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν.
καὶ ἐξεπορεύετο πρὸς αὐτὸν πᾶσα ἡ Ἰουδαία χώρα καὶ οἱ Ἱεροσολυμῖται πάντες, καὶ ἐβαπτίζοντο ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ Ἰορδάνῃ ποταμῷ ἐξομολογούμενοι τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν.
καὶ ἦν ὁ Ἰωάννης ἐνδεδυμένος τρίχας καμήλου καὶ ζώνην δερματίνην περὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐσθίων ἀκρίδας καὶ μέλι ἄγριον.
Καὶ ἐκήρυσσεν λέγων• * ἔρχεται ὁ ἰσχυρότερός μου ὀπίσω μου, οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς κύψας λῦσαι τὸν ἱμάντα τῶν ὑποδημάτων αὐτοῦ.
ἐγὼ ἐβάπτισα ὑμᾶς ὕδατι, αὐτὸς δὲ βαπτίσει ὑμᾶς ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ.
Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις ἦλθεν Ἰησοῦς ἀπὸ Ναζαρὲτ τῆς Γαλιλαίας καὶ ἐβαπτίσθη εἰς τὸν Ἰορδάνην ὑπὸ Ἰωάννου.
καὶ εὐθὺς ἀναβαίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος εἶδεν σχιζομένους τοὺς οὐρανοὺς καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα ὡς περιστερὰν καταβαῖνον εἰς αὐτόν•
καὶ φωνὴ ἐγένετο ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν• σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός, ἐν σοὶ εὐδόκησα.
Καὶ εὐθὺς τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτὸν ἐκβάλλει εἰς τὴν ἔρημον.
καὶ ἦν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ τεσσεράκοντα ἡμέρας πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ σατανᾶ, καὶ ἦν μετὰ τῶν θηρίων, * καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι διηκόνουν αὐτῷ.
phrasing
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Disclaimer: The opinions and conclusions expressed on this page are those of the author and may or may not accord with the positions of Biblearc or Bethlehem College & Seminary.