And Jesus came to the region of Caesarea Philipi asking his disciples saying; who do men [think] the son of man is?
And they answered, some say John the Baptist, but others Elijah, and others Jeremiah, or one of the prophets.
He said to them, who do you say I am?
And answering Simon Peter says, You are the Christ
the son of the living God.
Answering him Jesus says: Blessed are you Simon Barjonah,
because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you
but my Father in heaven.
And I say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock
I will build my church
and the door of Hades will not win victory over her.
I give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven,
and (whatever) you bind upon this earth it will be binding in heaven,
and (whatever) you loose on this earth it will be loosed in heaven.
Then he ordered his disciples so that none might speak that he is the Christ.
Jesus has refused to give the Pharisees and Sadducees a sign other than the sign of Jonah. (Maybe this explains v.20, maybe this is why Jesus calls Peter son of Jonah) (Matt 16:1-4). Jesus continues his critics of Pharisees by telling his disciples to beware of their teaching. (Matt 16:5-12) Jesus is laying a message contrary to what that of the Pharisees. He establishes who he is (Matt 16:13-16), who his people are (Matt 16:17-20), what he must do (Matt 16:21-23) and what his people must to (Matt 16:24-28)
The identity of the Son of Man matters (v.13-14) Jesus claims the title the son of man (v.15) Everyone must answer the question "who is the son of man?" (v.13-15) v.17 same pattern with Matt 6:9, Matt 5:16, Matt 5:45, Matt 6:1, Matt 7:11, Matt 7:21, Matt 10:32,33, Matt 18:10, Matt 18:14, Matt 18:19, Mark 11:25 This is a marriage proposal (v.19) How does 18a relate to 18b and 18c? Why does Jesus want to conceal in Messiahship (v.20)? Jesus is a different Messiah than the people expected. What is the rock and how does it relate to Peter (v.18)?
Jesus -In the region of Caesarea Philippi -Interested in who the Son of man is? -Has disciples -is the Christ, the Son of the living God -Blesses Peter for rightly identifying him -His Father is in heaven -Intends to build his church upon the rock -Gives his church and/or Peter the keys to the kingdom of Heaven -Orders his disciples to not share that he is the Christ Caesarea Philippi -The region where this scene takes place Jesus' disciples -Peter is one of them -Are forbidding to share the revelation that Jesus is the Christ The Son of Man -Confusion about who he is (John the B, Elijah, Jeremiah, some prophet). -Jesus claims to be him Simon Peter - Rightly identifies Jesus by the revelation of the father -Has been given the keys to heaven The Church -build upon the rock -Hades will not prevail over her. -Has binding and loosing authority The rock - ? -The revelation that Jesus is the son of the living God
Conflict Jesus asks if the Son of Man has been identified He has not Crisis Jesus asks his disciples to identify himself Climax Peter identifies Jesus as the Christ the Son of God Resolution Upon the words of Peter the church will be built and it will prevail Covenantal level Inauguration of the Church. Maybe v.20 is purely speaking the disciples pre-crucifixion. Canonical level Church authority, church discipline, congregational rule, so many implications for the church. Need to be paired up with what Revelation says.
This is the climax of the first main part of the gospel. (Hagner 463) Jesus ask the question that is on everybody's mind (Hagner 407) Flesh and blood is a Semitic expression for human agency (Hagner 469) John refers to Peter as the son of John so the use of Bar-Jonah would have been deliberate. (Hagner 469) In Aramaic, there is no shift from Πετρος to πετρα. They are both Kepa. (Hagner 470) The gates of Hades will not prevail means the church will not die or end. Death is the mean Satan uses, it will not work. (Hagner 472) (Some implication about the perseverance of the saints) Hagner believes that Peter is the rock as leader of the apostles. (Hagner 472) Hagner argues that binding and loosing speaks of conducts and command (Hagner 473) R.T France believes that Jesus gave Simon the name Peter (France 620-1) Peter is not a very common name in the Ancient world (France 460-1) Carson disagrees with this view (Carson 367) Jesus is using metaphorical language that must not be removed from its immediate context. (Carson 368) The people of YHWH becomes the people of the Messiah (Carson 369) "The church, because Jesus is building it, cannot be defeated by the host of darkness." (Carson 370) Jesus refused to make explicit messianic claims because he did not bow to the demand of signs from the people. (Carson 374)
Topic : Who is the son of man? Theme : The rock Proposition : Who Jesus is will build the church, protect the church and give it its authority. Redemptive Focus : The church belongs to Jesus and he cares for her Outline The Church is built upon the rock. (v.13-18) The Church is guarded. (v.18) The Church has the authority to bind and loose. (v.19-20)