Outline of 3 John 1. Opening Salutation (1) 2. Body (2-12) a. ENCOURAGEMENT FOR GAIUS (2-4) b. CARE FOR GOSPEL WORKERS (5-10) i. Gaius’ Faithfulness (5-8) ii. Diotraphes’ Wickedness (9-10) c. JOHN’S RECOMENDATION OF DEMETRIUS (11-12) 3. Farewell (13-15)
The Elder, to Gaius the beloved, whom I love with respect to the truth: Beloved, concerning all, I pray that you prosper and that you are healthy even as your soul (spiritual life) is prospering. For, I rejoiced exceedingly when the brothers came and testified concerning your truthfulness, namely that you walk in truth. I have no greater joy than these things, that I hear my children are walking in the truth. Beloved, you faithfully do whatever for the brothers - and at that strangers - who testified to your love before the church. Please, you will do well by sending them on their way in a manner worthy of God. For on behalf of the name of Jesus they went out not receiving anything from the unbelievers. Therefore, we ought to support these kinds of people , so that we may become fellow workers in truth. I wrote something to the church but he who desires to be first over them, namely Diotraphes, does not acknowledge us. Because of this, If I come, I will expose his works, which he does by slandering us with evil words, and because he is not satisfied with these things, he does not welcome the brothers, he even hinders those who desire to welcome the brothers, and he expels them out of the church. Beloved, do not imitate what is evil but what is good. For the one who does good is from God. But the one who does evil has not seen God. Demetrius has been spoken of by all and by truth itself; even we testify, and you know that our testimony is true. I had many things to write you but I do not want to write you through pen and ink. But I hope to see you soon and we will speak face to face. Peace to you. The friends greet you. Greet the friends by name.
3 John 1-15
The elder to the beloved Gaius, whom I love in truth.
The Elder, to Gaius the beloved
Γαΐῳ τῷ ἀγαπητῷ,
ὃν ἐγὼ ἀγαπῶ
whom I love with respect to the truth
Encouragement for Gaius
Beloved, I pray that in all respects you may prosper and be in good health, just as your soul prospers.
Beloved, concerning all, I pray that you prosper and that you are healthy
καθὼς εὐοδοῦταί σου ἡ ψυχή.
even as your soul (spiritual life) is prospering.
For I was very glad when brethren came and testified to your truth, that is, how you are walking in truth.
ἐχάρην γὰρ λίαν
For, I rejoiced exceedingly
when the brothers came and testified concerning your truthfulness
καὶ μαρτυρούντων σου τῇ ἀληθείᾳ,
καθὼς σὺ ... περιπατεῖς.
just as you walk in truth.
Opt 1: Comparison / Opt 2: Content
I have no greater joy than this, to hear of my children walking in the truth.
μειζοτέραν τούτων οὐκ ἔχω χαράν,
I have no greater joy than these things
that I hear my children are walking in the truth.
τὰ ἐμὰ τέκνα ... περιπατοῦντα.
ἐν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ
Care for Gospel Workers
Encouragement for Gaius’ faithfulness
Beloved, you are acting faithfully in whatever you accomplish for the brethren, and especially when they are strangers;
You do faithfulness
ὃ ἐὰν ἐργάσῃ
Whatever you do
εἰς τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς
For the brothers
καὶ τοῦτο ξένους,
and that strangers
and they have testified to your love before the church. You will do well to send them on their way in a manner worthy of God.
οἳ ἐμαρτύρησάν σου τῇ ἀγάπῃ
Who testified to your love
Before the church
Whom you will do well
οὓς καλῶς ποιήσεις
προπέμψας ἀξίως τοῦ θεοῦ·
Sending them on their way worthy of God
For they went out for the sake of the Name, accepting nothing from the Gentiles.
ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀνόματος
On behalf of the name
γὰρ ... ἐξῆλθον
For they went out
ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνικῶν.
From the gentiles.
Therefore we ought to support such men, so that we may be fellow workers with the truth.
ἡμεῖς οὖν ὀφείλομεν ὑπολαμβάνειν τοὺς τοιούτους,
Therefore we ought to support these kinds
ἵνα συνεργοὶ γινώμεθα
So that we may become fellow workers
I wrote something to the church; but Diotrephes, who loves to be first among them, does not accept what we say.
I wrote someone
To the church;
ἀλλ’ ὁ φιλοπρωτεύων αὐτῶν ... οὐκ ἐπιδέχεται ἡμᾶς.
but Who desires to be first over them ... does not acknowledge us.
For this reason, if I come, I will call attention to his deeds which he does, unjustly accusing us with wicked words; and not satisfied with this, he himself does not receive the brethren, either, and he forbids those who desire to do so and puts them out of the church.
If I come,
διὰ τοῦτο, ... ὑπομνήσω αὐτοῦ τὰ ἔργα
Because of this, ... I will expose his works
which he does,
With evil words
By slandering us
καὶ μὴ ἀρκούμενος ἐπὶ τούτοις
and because he is not satisfied with these things
οὔτε αὐτὸς ἐπιδέχεται τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς
nor he welcomed the brothers
καὶ τοὺς βουλομένους κωλύει
and those desiring he hinders
καὶ ἐκ τῆς ἐκκλησίας ἐκβάλλει.
And he cast out of the church.
John’s Reconmendation of Demetrius
Beloved, do not imitate what is evil, but what is good. The one who does good is of God; the one who does evil has not seen God.
μὴ μιμοῦ τὸ κακὸν ἀλλὰ τὸ ἀγαθόν.
Do not imitate evil but good
(∅) ὁ ἀγαθοποιῶν ... ἐστιν·
The one who does good is
ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ
(∅) ὁ κακοποιῶν οὐχ ἑώρακεν τὸν θεόν.
The one who does evil has not seen God.
Demetrius has received a good testimony from everyone, and from the truth itself; and we add our testimony, and you know that our testimony is true.
Δημητρίῳ μεμαρτύρηται ὑπὸ πάντων καὶ ὑπὸ αὐτῆς τῆς ἀληθείας·
He has been well spoken of by all and by truth itself
καὶ ἡμεῖς δὲ μαρτυροῦμεν,
And we also testify
And you know
ὅτι ἡ μαρτυρία ἡμῶν ἀληθής ἐστιν.
That our testimony is true.
I had many things to write to you, but I am not willing to write them to you with pen and ink;
I had many things
to write you
ἀλλ’ οὐ θέλω
But i do not want
διὰ μέλανος καὶ καλάμου
Through ink and pen to write you
but I hope to see you shortly, and we will speak face to face.
But I hope
εὐθέως σε ἰδεῖν,
to see you immediately
καὶ στόμα πρὸς στόμα λαλήσομεν.
And mouth to moth we will talk
Peace be to you. The friends greet you. Greet the friends by name.
Peace to you
ἀσπάζονταί σε οἱ φίλοι.
The friends welcome you
ἀσπάζου τοὺς φίλους
Welcome the friends
Option 1: Adverbial Accusative of Manner “You act faithfully” Option 2: Accusative Direct Object “You do faithfulness”
Mild imperative expressed as an expectation. This was a common method of introducing a polite request. (Derickson 673)
Not limiting supporting Gospel work to just these men but all who are like these men
Including all true Christians
Option 1: substantial participle and apposition Option 2: Attributive participle
καθώς,5 BDAG After verbs of saying it introduces indirect discourse (=ὡς, πῶς) Συμεὼν ἐξηγήσατο, κ. ὁ θεὸς ἐπεσκέψατο S. has related how God visited Ac 15:14 . μαρτυρούντων σου τῇ ἀληθείᾳ, κ. σὺ ἐν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ περιπατεῖς who testify to your truth, namely how you walk in the truth 3J 3 .—M-M.
Imitate whose behavior?
Chiastic relationship ABB’A’ Emphasis on the one who does good is from God.
Ὁ πρεσβύτερος Γαΐῳ τῷ ἀγαπητῷ, ὃν ἐγὼ ἀγαπῶ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ.
Ἀγαπητέ, περὶ πάντων εὔχομαί σε εὐοδοῦσθαι καὶ ὑγιαίνειν, καθὼς εὐοδοῦταί σου ἡ ψυχή.
ἐχάρην γὰρ λίαν ἐρχομένων ἀδελφῶν καὶ μαρτυρούντων σου τῇ ἀληθείᾳ, καθὼς σὺ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ περιπατεῖς.
μειζοτέραν τούτων οὐκ ἔχω χαράν, ἵνα ἀκούω τὰ ἐμὰ τέκνα ἐν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ περιπατοῦντα.
Ἀγαπητέ, πιστὸν ποιεῖς ὃ ἐὰν ἐργάσῃ εἰς τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς καὶ τοῦτο ξένους,
οἳ ἐμαρτύρησάν σου τῇ ἀγάπῃ ἐνώπιον ἐκκλησίας, οὓς καλῶς ποιήσεις προπέμψας ἀξίως τοῦ θεοῦ·
ὑπὲρ γὰρ τοῦ ὀνόματος ἐξῆλθον μηδὲν λαμβάνοντες ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνικῶν.
ἡμεῖς οὖν ὀφείλομεν ὑπολαμβάνειν τοὺς τοιούτους, ἵνα συνεργοὶ γινώμεθα τῇ ἀληθείᾳ.
Ἔγραψά τι τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ· ἀλλ’ ὁ φιλοπρωτεύων αὐτῶν Διοτρέφης οὐκ ἐπιδέχεται ἡμᾶς.
διὰ τοῦτο, ἐὰν ἔλθω, ὑπομνήσω αὐτοῦ τὰ ἔργα ἃ ποιεῖ, λόγοις πονηροῖς φλυαρῶν ἡμᾶς, καὶ μὴ ἀρκούμενος ἐπὶ τούτοις οὔτε αὐτὸς ἐπιδέχεται τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς καὶ τοὺς βουλομένους κωλύει καὶ ἐκ τῆς ἐκκλησίας ἐκβάλλει.
Ἀγαπητέ, μὴ μιμοῦ τὸ κακὸν ἀλλὰ τὸ ἀγαθόν. ὁ ἀγαθοποιῶν ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐστιν· ὁ κακοποιῶν οὐχ ἑώρακεν τὸν θεόν.
Δημητρίῳ μεμαρτύρηται ὑπὸ πάντων καὶ ὑπὸ αὐτῆς τῆς ἀληθείας· καὶ ἡμεῖς δὲ μαρτυροῦμεν, καὶ οἶδας ὅτι ἡ μαρτυρία ἡμῶν ἀληθής ἐστιν.
Πολλὰ εἶχον γράψαι σοι, ἀλλ’ οὐ θέλω διὰ μέλανος καὶ καλάμου σοι γράφειν·
ἐλπίζω δὲ εὐθέως σε ἰδεῖν, καὶ στόμα πρὸς στόμα λαλήσομεν.
Εἰρήνη σοι. ἀσπάζονταί σε οἱ φίλοι. ἀσπάζου τοὺς φίλους κατ’ ὄνομα.
3 John 1-15
3 John 1
3 John 2
3 John 3
3 John 4
3 John 5
3 John 7
3 John 6
3 John 8
3 John 9
3 John 10
3 John 11
3 John 12
3 John 13
3 John 14
3 John 15
Option 1: Comparison - indicating that the report was in line with what John knew of Gaius’ walk in truth Option 2: Content - the content of their message was that Gaius was walking in truth