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Joey Karrigan
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John 18:12-27
John 18:12-27
Shared August 7th, 2019; Updated August 7th, 2019
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One Sentence Summary: [Obedience and Faithfulness] Jesus demonstrates his fidelity to the Father as he endures as the spotless lamb, whereas Peter stumbles, stutters, and falls from his previous confidence, denying the very God-man. [Sovereignty] Jesus predicts and prophesies the very downfall of those closest to him, while enduring unjust sufferings and persecution. [Last Adam Typology] The Last Adam perseveres serpentine attacks in the garden even as his closest friends abandon him in greatest need. [Gospel] God chooses the faithful Son to give himself up on behalf of the many faithless sons. NOTE: I struggle finding a clear one sentence summary because (1) there are several themes here you could draw out and expand on and (2) this seems to be more narratives description rather than clear theological statements. Wordplay: I think there is some wordplay going on between Peter and Jesus. Jesus, in the garden previous, indicates that he is the I AM, whom Peter intends to guard even if it costs him his own life. Now, Peter's only words are I AM NOT, perhaps a contrast to Jesus's words, pointing us to the singular, faithful, God-man Jesus Christ. There is no other I AM, all others simply ARE NOT. Of Significance: Jesus is suffering not for what he has done wrong, and he says, "If I have spoken wrong," whereas Peter is the one speaking one by denying Jesus, and he flees from persecution and the consequences of his actions, whereas Jesus is receiving penalty for actions he has not done. The substitutionary penalties are already being received by Jesus and act as a foreshadowing of greater substitution to come. Foreshadowing: Caiaphas thinks "it is better" that one man should die, lit., "on behalf of the people." And in his sin, he is, in a sense, right. Jesus is going to die on behalf of the people, but Jesus will act as a high priest far superior to Caiaphas, for Christ will offer up himself as the lamb by which he will propitiate God for his people. Jesus is struck for answering truly to some human high priest, when he is himself the true, melchizedekian, indestructible high priest! Regarding grace: I believe the contrast between Jesus's fidelity and Peter's failure is being highlighted in order to demonstrate God's mercy to sinners. These are the very people he chooses. Acts will demonstrate that God makes these people new in his image by pouring out the Spirit, and Peter becomes a once-denying-now-proclaiming apostle. Gospel: Peter fears man, fears punishment, fears the consequences of persecution by aligning with Jesus. I believe it's signifianct that God chooses these of all men, and the gospel highlights God choosing the broken, the denying, and the faithless to receive life in him by faith.
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John 18:12-27
na28
esv
Ἡ οὖν σπεῖρα καὶ ὁ χιλίαρχος καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται τῶν Ἰουδαίων συνέλαβον τὸν Ἰησοῦν
So the band of soldiers and their captain and the officers of the Jews 1 arrested Jesus
καὶ ἔδησαν αὐτὸν
and bound him.
series
καὶ ἤγαγον πρὸς Ἅνναν πρῶτον•
[and] First they y led him to z Annas,
ἦν γὰρ πενθερὸς τοῦ Καϊάφα,
for he was the father-in-law of a Caiaphas,
ὃς ἦν ἀρχιερεὺς τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἐκείνου•
who was high priest that year.
ideaexplanation
ἦν δὲ Καϊάφας ὁ συμβουλεύσας τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις
[and] It was Caiaphas who had advised the Jews
ὅτι συμφέρει ἕνα ἄνθρωπον ἀποθανεῖν ὑπὲρ τοῦ λαοῦ.
b that it would be expedient that one man should die for the people.
ground
Ἠκολούθει δὲ τῷ Ἰησοῦ Σίμων Πέτρος
c [and] Simon Peter followed Jesus,
καὶ ἄλλος μαθητής.
and so did another disciple.
ὁ δὲ μαθητὴς ἐκεῖνος ἦν γνωστὸς τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ
[and] that disciple was known to the high priest,
καὶ συνεισῆλθεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως,
[and] he entered with Jesus into the courtyard of the high priest,
inference
ὁ δὲ Πέτρος εἱστήκει πρὸς τῇ θύρᾳ ἔξω.
d but Peter stood outside at the door.
negativepositive
ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ μαθητὴς ὁ ἄλλος ὁ γνωστὸς τοῦ ἀρχιερέως
So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out
καὶ εἶπεν τῇ θυρωρῷ
and spoke to the servant girl who kept watch at the door,
καὶ εἰσήγαγεν τὸν Πέτρον.
and brought Peter in.
λέγει οὖν τῷ Πέτρῳ ἡ παιδίσκη ἡ θυρωρός•
e The servant girl at the door said to Peter,
μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν εἶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου;
“You also are not one of this man’s disciples, are you?”
λέγει ἐκεῖνος•
He said,
οὐκ εἰμί.
“I am not.”
εἱστήκεισαν δὲ οἱ δοῦλοι καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ἀνθρακιὰν πεποιηκότες,
Now the servants 1 and officers had made a charcoal fire,
ὅτι ψῦχος ἦν,
because it was cold,
καὶ ἐθερμαίνοντο•
and they were standing and warming themselves.
ἦν δὲ καὶ ὁ Πέτρος μετʼ αὐτῶν ἑστὼς καὶ θερμαινόμενος.
f [and] Peter also was with them, standing and warming himself.
Ὁ οὖν ἀρχιερεὺς ἠρώτησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν περὶ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ καὶ περὶ τῆς διδαχῆς αὐτοῦ.
g The high priest then questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching.
ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς•
Jesus answered him,
ἐγὼ παρρησίᾳ λελάληκα τῷ κόσμῳ,
“I have spoken h openly i to the world.
ἐγὼ πάντοτε ἐδίδαξα ἐν συναγωγῇ καὶ ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ,
I have always taught in synagogues and in the temple,
ὅπου πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι συνέρχονται,
where all Jews come together
καὶ ἐν κρυπτῷ ἐλάλησα οὐδέν.
[and] I have said nothing in secret.
τί με ἐρωτᾷς;
Why do you ask me?
ἐρώτησον τοὺς ἀκηκοότας τί ἐλάλησα αὐτοῖς•
Ask those who have heard me what I said to them;
ἴδε οὗτοι οἴδασιν ἃ εἶπον ἐγώ.
they know what I said.”
ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰπόντος εἷς παρεστηκὼς τῶν ὑπηρετῶν ἔδωκεν ῥάπισμα τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰπών•
When he had said these things, one of the officers standing by struck Jesus with his hand, saying,
οὕτως ἀποκρίνῃ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ;
k “Is that how you answer the high priest?”
ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς•
Jesus answered him,
εἰ κακῶς ἐλάλησα,
“If what I said is wrong,
μαρτύρησον περὶ τοῦ κακοῦ•
bear witness about the wrong;
conditional
εἰ δὲ καλῶς,
but if what I said is right,
τί με δέρεις;
why do you strike me?”
situationresponse
ἀπέστειλεν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ Ἅννας δεδεμένον πρὸς Καϊάφαν τὸν ἀρχιερέα.
l Annas then sent him bound to l Caiaphas the high priest.
actionresult
῏Ην δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος ἑστὼς
m Now Simon Peter was standing
καὶ θερμαινόμενος.
and warming himself.
εἶπον οὖν αὐτῷ•
So they said to him,
μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ εἶ;
“You also are not one of his disciples, are you?”
ἠρνήσατο ἐκεῖνος
He denied it
καὶ εἶπεν•
and said,
οὐκ εἰμί.
“I am not.”
λέγει εἷς ἐκ τῶν δούλων τοῦ ἀρχιερέως,
One of the servants of the high priest,
συγγενὴς ὢν οὗ ἀπέκοψεν Πέτρος τὸ ὠτίον•
a relative of n the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked,
οὐκ ἐγώ σε εἶδον ἐν τῷ κήπῳ μετʼ αὐτοῦ;
“Did I not see you o in the garden with him?”
πάλιν οὖν ἠρνήσατο Πέτρος,
Peter again denied it,
καὶ εὐθέως ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν.
and p at once a rooster crowed.
na28
discourse
Phrase
John 18:12-27
na28
Ἡ οὖν σπεῖρα καὶ ὁ χιλίαρχος καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται τῶν Ἰουδαίων συνέλαβον τὸν Ἰησοῦν
So the band of soldiers and their captain and the officers of the Jews arrested Jesus
καὶ ἔδησαν αὐτὸν
and bound him.
καὶ ἤγαγον πρὸς Ἅνναν πρῶτον•
[and] they led him to Annas [first],
ἦν γὰρ πενθερὸς τοῦ Καϊάφα,
for he was the father- in- law of Caiaphas,
ὃς ἦν ἀρχιερεὺς τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἐκείνου•
who was high priest that year.
ἦν δὲ Καϊάφας ὁ συμβουλεύσας τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις
It was Caiaphas who had advised the Jews
ὅτι συμφέρει
that it would be expedient
ἕνα ἄνθρωπον ἀποθανεῖν ὑπὲρ τοῦ λαοῦ.
that one man should die for the people.
Ἠκολούθει δὲ τῷ Ἰησοῦ Σίμων Πέτρος
[and] Simon Peter followed Jesus,
καὶ ἄλλος μαθητής.
and so did another disciple.
ὁ δὲ μαθητὴς ἐκεῖνος ἦν γνωστὸς τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ
[Now/and] that disciple was known to the high priest,
καὶ συνεισῆλθεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως,
[and] he entered with Jesus into the courtyard of the high priest,
ὁ δὲ Πέτρος εἱστήκει πρὸς τῇ θύρᾳ ἔξω.
but Peter stood outside at the door.
ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ μαθητὴς ὁ ἄλλος ὁ γνωστὸς τοῦ ἀρχιερέως
So the other disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out
καὶ εἶπεν τῇ θυρωρῷ
and spoke to the servant girl who kept watch at the door,
καὶ εἰσήγαγεν τὸν Πέτρον.
and brought Peter in.
λέγει οὖν τῷ Πέτρῳ ἡ παιδίσκη ἡ θυρωρός•
[So/therefore] The servant girl at the door said to Peter,
μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν εἶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου;
“You also are not one of this man’s disciples, are you?”
na28
λέγει ἐκεῖνος•
He said,
Asyndeton--why? Intentional?
οὐκ εἰμί.
“I am not.”
Wordplay here? Contrast w/ Jesus?
na28
εἱστήκεισαν δὲ οἱ δοῦλοι καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ἀνθρακιὰν πεποιηκότες,
Now the servants and officers had made a charcoal fire,
ὅτι ψῦχος ἦν,
because it was cold,
καὶ ἐθερμαίνοντο•
and they were standing and warming themselves.
ἦν δὲ καὶ ὁ Πέτρος μετʼ αὐτῶν ἑστὼς καὶ θερμαινόμενος.
[and] Peter also was with them, standing and warming himself.
Ὁ οὖν ἀρχιερεὺς ἠρώτησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν περὶ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ καὶ περὶ τῆς διδαχῆς αὐτοῦ.
The high priest then questioned Jesus about his disciples and his teaching.
ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς•
Jesus answered him,
Asyndeton
ἐγὼ παρρησίᾳ λελάληκα τῷ κόσμῳ,
“I have spoken openly to the world.
na28
ἐγὼ πάντοτε ἐδίδαξα ἐν συναγωγῇ καὶ ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ,
I have always taught in synagogues and in the temple,
ὅπου πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι συνέρχονται,
where all Jews come together
καὶ ἐν κρυπτῷ ἐλάλησα οὐδέν.
[and] I have said nothing in secret.
τί με ἐρωτᾷς;
Why do you ask me?
ἐρώτησον τοὺς ἀκηκοότας τί ἐλάλησα αὐτοῖς•
Ask those who have heard me what I said to them;
ἴδε οὗτοι οἴδασιν ἃ εἶπον ἐγώ.
they know what I said.”
ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰπόντος
When he had said these things,
εἷς παρεστηκὼς τῶν ὑπηρετῶν ἔδωκεν ῥάπισμα τῷ Ἰησοῦ
one of the officers standing by struck Jesus with his hand,
εἰπών•
saying,
οὕτως ἀποκρίνῃ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ;
“Is that how you answer the high priest?”
na28
ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς•
Jesus answered him,
εἰ κακῶς ἐλάλησα,
“If what I said is wrong,
na28
μαρτύρησον περὶ τοῦ κακοῦ•
bear witness about the wrong;
εἰ δὲ καλῶς,
but if what I said is right,
τί με δέρεις;
why do you strike me?”
ἀπέστειλεν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ Ἅννας δεδεμένον πρὸς Καϊάφαν τὸν ἀρχιερέα.
Annas then sent him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.
῏Ην δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος ἑστὼς
Now Simon Peter was standing
καὶ θερμαινόμενος.
and warming himself.
εἶπον οὖν αὐτῷ•
So they said to him,
μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ εἶ;
“You also are not one of his disciples, are you?”
na28
ἠρνήσατο ἐκεῖνος καὶ εἶπεν•
He denied it and said,
οὐκ εἰμί.
“I am not.”
na28
Wordplay again? Contrast with Jesus's above statement
λέγει εἷς ἐκ τῶν δούλων τοῦ ἀρχιερέως,
One of the servants of the high priest,
συγγενὴς ὢν οὗ ἀπέκοψεν Πέτρος τὸ ὠτίον•
a relative of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked,
οὐκ ἐγώ σε εἶδον ἐν τῷ κήπῳ μετʼ αὐτοῦ;
“Did I not see you in the garden with him?”
na28
The zealous one in the garden falls in denial of the Ego Eimi
πάλιν οὖν ἠρνήσατο Πέτρος,
[So] Peter again denied it,
καὶ εὐθέως ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν.
and at once a rooster crowed.
Ἡ οὖν σπεῖρα καὶ ὁ χιλίαρχος καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται τῶν Ἰουδαίων συνέλαβον τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἔδησαν αὐτὸν
καὶ ἤγαγον πρὸς Ἅνναν πρῶτον• ἦν γὰρ πενθερὸς τοῦ Καϊάφα, ὃς ἦν ἀρχιερεὺς τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ ἐκείνου•
ἦν δὲ Καϊάφας ὁ συμβουλεύσας τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ὅτι συμφέρει ἕνα ἄνθρωπον ἀποθανεῖν ὑπὲρ τοῦ λαοῦ.
Ἠκολούθει δὲ τῷ Ἰησοῦ Σίμων Πέτρος καὶ ἄλλος μαθητής. ὁ δὲ μαθητὴς ἐκεῖνος ἦν γνωστὸς τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ καὶ συνεισῆλθεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως,
ὁ δὲ Πέτρος εἱστήκει πρὸς τῇ θύρᾳ ἔξω. ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ μαθητὴς ὁ ἄλλος ὁ γνωστὸς τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ εἶπεν τῇ θυρωρῷ καὶ εἰσήγαγεν τὸν Πέτρον.
λέγει οὖν τῷ Πέτρῳ ἡ παιδίσκη ἡ θυρωρός• μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν εἶ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου; λέγει ἐκεῖνος• οὐκ εἰμί.
εἱστήκεισαν δὲ οἱ δοῦλοι καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ἀνθρακιὰν πεποιηκότες, ὅτι ψῦχος ἦν, καὶ ἐθερμαίνοντο• ἦν δὲ καὶ ὁ Πέτρος μετʼ αὐτῶν ἑστὼς καὶ θερμαινόμενος.
Ὁ οὖν ἀρχιερεὺς ἠρώτησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν περὶ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ καὶ περὶ τῆς διδαχῆς αὐτοῦ.
ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς• ἐγὼ παρρησίᾳ λελάληκα τῷ κόσμῳ, ἐγὼ πάντοτε ἐδίδαξα ἐν συναγωγῇ καὶ ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ, ὅπου πάντες οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι συνέρχονται, καὶ ἐν κρυπτῷ ἐλάλησα οὐδέν.
τί με ἐρωτᾷς; ἐρώτησον τοὺς ἀκηκοότας τί ἐλάλησα αὐτοῖς• ἴδε οὗτοι οἴδασιν ἃ εἶπον ἐγώ.
ταῦτα δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰπόντος εἷς παρεστηκὼς τῶν ὑπηρετῶν ἔδωκεν ῥάπισμα τῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰπών• οὕτως ἀποκρίνῃ τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ;
ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς• εἰ κακῶς ἐλάλησα, μαρτύρησον περὶ τοῦ κακοῦ• εἰ δὲ καλῶς, τί με δέρεις;
ἀπέστειλεν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ Ἅννας δεδεμένον πρὸς Καϊάφαν τὸν ἀρχιερέα.
῏Ην δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος ἑστὼς καὶ θερμαινόμενος. εἶπον οὖν αὐτῷ• μὴ καὶ σὺ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ εἶ; ἠρνήσατο ἐκεῖνος καὶ εἶπεν• οὐκ εἰμί.
λέγει εἷς ἐκ τῶν δούλων τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, συγγενὴς ὢν οὗ ἀπέκοψεν Πέτρος τὸ ὠτίον• οὐκ ἐγώ σε εἶδον ἐν τῷ κήπῳ μετʼ αὐτοῦ;
πάλιν οὖν ἠρνήσατο Πέτρος, καὶ εὐθέως ἀλέκτωρ ἐφώνησεν.
phrasing
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