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Jtorgeson
Seminarian at Bethlehem College and Seminary, Minneapolis, MN
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Pentecost & The Coming of the Spirit
Acts 2:1-4
Shared April 11th, 2020
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Diagram
Diagram
scripturetext
components
NT
Acts 2:1-4
na28
vsnum
Acts 2:1
text
Καὶ
subjectverb
πάντες
solid
drop
equal
revrocket
line
pred
ἦσαν
ὁμοῦ
prepphrase
pstack
cword
ἐν
directobject
τῷ
shelf
τὴν
ἡμέραν
vertical
τῆς
πεντηκοστῆς
infinitive
συμπληροῦσθαι
ἐπὶ
τὸ
αὐτό
Acts 2:2
καὶ
ἦχος
rocketship
ἐγένετο
ἄφνω
ἐπλήρωσεν
ἐκ
τοῦ
οὐρανοῦ
τὸν
οἶκον
ὅλον
obtuse
ἦσαν
οὗ
participle
καθήμενοι
καὶ
πνοῆς
βιαίας
φερομένης
ὥσπερ
Acts 2:3
καὶ
smartline
dashed
free
ttext
Acts 2:4
καὶ
πάντες
ἐπλήσθησαν
ἤρξαντο
πνεύματος
ἁγίου
dblaccusative
λαλεῖν
indirectobj
ἑτέραις
γλώσσαις
τὸ
πνεῦμα
ἐδίδου
ἀποφθέγγεσθαι
αὐτοῖς
καθὼς
καὶ
γλῶσσαι
πυρὸς
ὡσεὶ
διαμεριζόμεναι
ὤφθησαν
ἐκάθισεν
αὐτοῖς
ἐφʼ
ἕνα
ἕκαστον
αὐτῶν
καὶ
Note the passive form of the verb οραω, Trans: "to them were seen" or "to them appeared" The implication here is that only those filled by the Holy Spirit saw the tongues "as of fire ", while the crowd saw the gifts.
πνεύματος is a genitive of content . "filled with the Holy Spirit " (Wallace, 94)
"It is to be noted that neither the verb nor the case following the verb are the same as in Eph 5:18 (here, πιμπλημι; there, πληροω; here, gen.; there, [εν+] dat.). The command there to be filled by the Spirit has nothing to do with tongues-speaking. The Spirit-filling (with πιμπλημι) in Acts is never commanded, nor is it related particularly to sanctification. Rather, it is a special imbueing of the Spirit for a particular task (similar to the Spirit's ministry in the OT ). Furthermore, every time the case used to indicate the content of filling is the gen., never the dat . Cf. Acts 4:8, 31; 9:17; 13:9 (cf. also Luke 1:15, 41)." (Wallace, 94, italics and underlining mine)
See the singular form of this verb compared with the plural subject γλωσσαι as well as the plural form of the verb ωφθησαν. A few ideas: The noun is a noun clause, "tongues as of fire" which incorporates both the plural idea (tongues were seen) as well as the singular (fire sat). See also the King James Version: "And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire , and it sat upon each of them" (italics mine) TEXTUAL VARIANT: There is a textual variant with strong manuscript evidence for the plural form of the verb (εκαθισαν). However, even if the point is granted that the original manuscript contains the plural form of the verb, than the singular usage is indicative an interpretive tradition arguing for the singular meaning. The burden, therefore, is on the one ignoring NA28's current choice of the singular form to disprove the singular meaning.
The singular meaning "fire...rested" leads to two possible interpretations: 1.) Many tongue s were divided, and then each tongu e rested on an individual. 2.) The "tongues as of fire" represents the voice of God, which came upon them for this particular event (see Philo, Decalogue ). This would mirror the function of the Spirit in the OT, as coming onto people for a particular task. (Wallace, 94)
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Comments
JeremiahO
brother your reference to wallace on the discussion of what the 'tongues of fire' was, that is page 94 is wrong. Wallace doesn't talk about it on the page.
Jtorgeson
Hey Jeremiah, I double-checked Wallace, page 94 after reading your response. Maybe we have different versions? Wallace discusses Acts 2:4 (I put his direct quotations in my notes) on page 94. Let me know if you'd like me to send you a screenshot or something.
Disclaimer: The opinions and conclusions expressed on this page are those of the author and may or may not accord with the positions of Biblearc or Bethlehem College & Seminary.