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James 2
James 2:1-26
Shared May 29th, 2020
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Phrase ch. 2
Phrase ch. 2
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NT
James 2:1-26
na28
The Contradiction of Faith and Partiality
Ἀδελφοί μου,
Vocative Address
μὴ ... ἔχετε τὴν πίστιν τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τῆς δόξης.
First Imperative
ἐν προσωπολημψίαις
Preposition of Manner
ἐὰν γὰρ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς συναγωγὴν ὑμῶν ἀνὴρ
Ground v 1 / Illustration
χρυσοδακτύλιος ἐν ἐσθῆτι λαμπρᾷ,
Adjectival Clause 2a
εἰσέλθῃ δὲ καὶ πτωχὸς ἐν ῥυπαρᾷ ἐσθῆτι,
Contrast 2a
ἐπιβλέψητε δὲ ἐπὶ τὸν φοροῦντα τὴν ἐσθῆτα τὴν λαμπρὰν
"If" Statement (Unpacking v 2)
καὶ εἴπητε•
Series
σὺ κάθου ὧδε καλῶς,
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Content 3b
καὶ τῷ πτωχῷ εἴπητε•
Progression
σὺ στῆθι ἢ κάθου ἐκεῖ ὑπὸ τὸ ὑποπόδιόν μου,
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Content 3d
καὶ οὐ διεκρίθητε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς
"Then" Statement (Q)
καὶ ἐγένεσθε κριταὶ διαλογισμῶν πονηρῶν;
Ἀκούσατε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί•
Second Imperative
οὐχ ὁ θεὸς ἐξελέξατο τοὺς πτωχοὺς τῷ κόσμῳ
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Correction / Wisdom
πλουσίους ἐν πίστει
Purpose 5b
καὶ κληρονόμους τῆς βασιλείας
ἧς ἐπηγγείλατο τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν αὐτόν;
Adjectival Clause 5d
ὑμεῖς δὲ ἠτιμάσατε τὸν πτωχόν.
Rebuke
οὐχ οἱ πλούσιοι καταδυναστεύουσιν ὑμῶν
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Question (Challenge)
καὶ αὐτοὶ ἕλκουσιν ὑμᾶς εἰς κριτήρια;
οὐκ αὐτοὶ βλασφημοῦσιν τὸ καλὸν ὄνομα
τὸ ἐπικληθὲν ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς;
Appositional 7a
Fulfilling The Law of the Kingdom: Practicing Mercy
Εἰ μέντοι νόμον τελεῖτε βασιλικὸν
"If" Statement
κατὰ τὴν γραφήν•
Manner 8a
ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν,
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Content of την γραπην 8a
καλῶς ποιεῖτε•
"Then" Statement
εἰ δὲ προσωπολημπτεῖτε,
"If" Statement (Contrast 8a)
ἁμαρτίαν ἐργάζεσθε
"Then" Statement
ἐλεγχόμενοι ὑπὸ τοῦ νόμου ὡς παραβάται.
Circumstantial Participle
ὅστις γὰρ ὅλον τὸν νόμον τηρήσῃ
Ground 8-9
πταίσῃ δὲ ἐν ἑνί,
Contrast 10a
γέγονεν πάντων ἔνοχος.
Result 10a-b
ὁ γὰρ εἰπών•
Ground 10 / Substantival
μὴ μοιχεύσῃς,
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Content 11a
εἶπεν καί•
Adjectival 11a-b
μὴ φονεύσῃς•
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Content 11c
εἰ δὲ οὐ μοιχεύεις
"If" Statement (Illustration 10)
φονεύεις δέ,
Contrast 11e
γέγονας παραβάτης νόμου.
"Then" St / Result 11e-f
Οὕτως λαλεῖτε
Inference 8-11 / Imperative
καὶ οὕτως ποιεῖτε
ὡς διὰ νόμου ἐλευθερίας μέλλοντες κρίνεσθαι.
Content 12 / Comparison
ἡ γὰρ κρίσις ἀνέλεος τῷ μὴ ποιήσαντι ἔλεος•
Ground / Wisdom 12
κατακαυχᾶται ἔλεος κρίσεως.
Contrast 13a
Faith Without Works Is Dead
ἀδελφοί μου,
Vocative Address
Τί τὸ ὄφελος, ...
Question / Challenge
ἐὰν πίστιν λέγῃ τις ἔχειν
Condition
ἔργα δὲ μὴ ἔχῃ;
Contrast
μὴ δύναται ἡ πίστις σῶσαι αὐτόν;
Restatement
ἐὰν ἀδελφὸς ἢ ἀδελφὴ γυμνοὶ ὑπάρχωσιν
"If" Statement
καὶ λειπόμενοι ὦσιν τῆς ἐφημέρου τροφῆς
Explains 15a
εἴπῃ δέ τις αὐτοῖς ἐξ ὑμῶν•
ὑπάγετε ἐν εἰρήνῃ,
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Content 16a
θερμαίνεσθε
Series / Explains 16b
καὶ χορτάζεσθε,
Series / Explains 16b
μὴ δῶτε δὲ αὐτοῖς τὰ ἐπιτήδεια τοῦ σώματος,
Contrast 16a-d
τί τὸ ὄφελος;
Question (Parallel 14b)
οὕτως καὶ ἡ πίστις, ... νεκρά ἐστιν καθʼ ἑαυτήν.
Conclusion / Wisdom
ἐὰν μὴ ἔχῃ ἔργα,
Condition 17a
Faith Like The Demons
Ἀλλʼ ἐρεῖ τις•
Objection / Problem
σὺ πίστιν ἔχεις,
Content 1
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κἀγὼ ἔργα ἔχω•
Content 2
δεῖξόν μοι τὴν πίστιν σου χωρὶς τῶν ἔργων,
Answer / Solution
κἀγώ σοι δείξω ... τὴν πίστιν.
Contrast 18d / Idea
ἐκ τῶν ἔργων μου
Means 18e
σὺ πιστεύεις ὅτι
Assertion
εἷς ἐστιν ὁ θεός,
Content
καλῶς ποιεῖς•
Response
καὶ τὰ δαιμόνια πιστεύουσιν καὶ φρίσσουσιν.
Challenges 18 / Explains 17
The Kinship of Faith and Works
ὦ ἄνθρωπε κενέ,
Vocative Address
Θέλεις δὲ γνῶναι, ... ὅτι
Question
ἡ πίστις χωρὶς τῶν ἔργων ἀργή ἐστιν;
Content 20b
Ἀβραὰμ ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη
Answer (Question) / Idea
ἀνενέγκας Ἰσαὰκ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον;
Temporal 21a
βλέπεις ὅτι
Inference 21
ἡ πίστις συνήργει τοῖς ἔργοις αὐτοῦ
Content 1
καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἔργων ἡ πίστις ἐτελειώθη,
Series / Content 2
καὶ ἐπληρώθη ἡ γραφὴ
Progression / Content 3
ἡ λέγουσα•
Apposition 23a
ἐπίστευσεν δὲ Ἀβραὰμ τῷ θεῷ,
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Content 1
καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην
Result
καὶ φίλος θεοῦ ἐκλήθη.
Expands 23e-d
ὁρᾶτε ὅτι
Inference / Wisdom
ἐξ ἔργων δικαιοῦται ἄνθρωπος
Statement (Content)
καὶ οὐκ ἐκ πίστεως μόνον.
Explains 24b
ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Ῥαὰβ ἡ πόρνη οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη
Comparison / Parallel 24
ὑποδεξαμένη τοὺς ἀγγέλους
Temporal 25a
καὶ ἑτέρᾳ ὁδῷ ἐκβαλοῦσα;
ὥσπερ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα χωρὶς πνεύματος νεκρόν ἐστιν,
Illustration / Wisdom
οὕτως καὶ ἡ πίστις χωρὶς ἔργων νεκρά ἐστιν.
Comparison
The discourse that follows in verses 5-7 challenges the believer to consider the rich and poor with respect to the kingdom of God. He is called to abandon the worldly categories of distinction and adopt God's categories of "rich" and "poor."
These verses serve to develop a number of themes from James 1: Rich and Poor (vv 9-11) Hearing & Doing (vv 19-25) True Religion (vv 26-27)
Unpacking the construction of this noun might be fruitful: προσωποληψια (Root: λαμβάνω + προσωπον) literally, "receive the face"
In making this kind of judgment, the perpetrator of this sin displaces God's judgment with his own, since his judgment is contrary to God's. This is the meaning of the progression of "making distinction --> making oneself judge"
Moo's title for this section is helpful: "Discrimination is Wrong Because It Violates the Kingdom Law of Love"
Notice: Partiality is set against the law of love. Whatever the reason for this is, this is why those who would show partiality will be as transgressors to the law.
See Leviticus 19:15: "You shall do no injustice in court, you shall be partial to the poor or defer to the great, but in righteousness you shall judge your neighbor." -Credit Moo for this observation.
Leviticus 19:18
Even though this passage opens with a reference to the law of the kingdom of God, the contrast later in verses 12-13 suggests that now, James is referring to one who would keep the law of Moses.
"By juxtaposing the keeping of the whole law with stumbling in one [law], we can see that Torah-obedience is the guideline for how this person lives their life." Craig L. Blomberg and Mariam J. Kamell, James , vol. 16, Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2008), 118.
"The best option, barely ever considered, may be that the entire clause, “you have faith and I have works,” is the opponent’s statement rephrased by James from his own side . On this view the “you” (σύ) could refer to the opponent/speaker, while the “I” (ἐγώ) refers to James himself, thus making all of v. 18a the opponent’s statement but taking the pronouns literally rather than as referring merely to “someone” and “another person.” On this reading, the “someone” (τις) stays consistent between v. 14 and v. 18. Likewise, this approach accepts the idea that the objector sees both faith and works as two separate but equally valid methods of showing genuine Christianity , while remaining truer to the grammar than the current consensus view." Craig L. Blomberg and Mariam J. Kamell, James , vol. 16, Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2008), 134.
συ = opponent
εγώ = James
With this reading of the opening phrase of verse 18, James is then challenging the one who "has faith" to prove it. The point here will be that, if there is no outward evidence of faith, then its existence is in serious question.
Ἀδελφοί μου, μὴ ἐν προσωπολημψίαις ἔχετε τὴν πίστιν τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τῆς δόξης.
ἐὰν γὰρ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς συναγωγὴν ὑμῶν ἀνὴρ χρυσοδακτύλιος ἐν ἐσθῆτι λαμπρᾷ, εἰσέλθῃ δὲ καὶ πτωχὸς ἐν ῥυπαρᾷ ἐσθῆτι,
ἐπιβλέψητε δὲ ἐπὶ τὸν φοροῦντα τὴν ἐσθῆτα τὴν λαμπρὰν καὶ εἴπητε• σὺ κάθου ὧδε καλῶς, καὶ τῷ πτωχῷ εἴπητε• σὺ στῆθι ἢ κάθου ἐκεῖ ὑπὸ τὸ ὑποπόδιόν μου,
καὶ οὐ διεκρίθητε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐγένεσθε κριταὶ διαλογισμῶν πονηρῶν;
Ἀκούσατε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί• οὐχ ὁ θεὸς ἐξελέξατο τοὺς πτωχοὺς τῷ κόσμῳ πλουσίους ἐν πίστει καὶ κληρονόμους τῆς βασιλείας ἧς ἐπηγγείλατο τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν αὐτόν;
ὑμεῖς δὲ ἠτιμάσατε τὸν πτωχόν. οὐχ οἱ πλούσιοι καταδυναστεύουσιν ὑμῶν καὶ αὐτοὶ ἕλκουσιν ὑμᾶς εἰς κριτήρια;
οὐκ αὐτοὶ βλασφημοῦσιν τὸ καλὸν ὄνομα τὸ ἐπικληθὲν ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς;
Εἰ μέντοι νόμον τελεῖτε βασιλικὸν κατὰ τὴν γραφήν• ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν, καλῶς ποιεῖτε•
εἰ δὲ προσωπολημπτεῖτε, ἁμαρτίαν ἐργάζεσθε ἐλεγχόμενοι ὑπὸ τοῦ νόμου ὡς παραβάται.
ὅστις γὰρ ὅλον τὸν νόμον τηρήσῃ πταίσῃ δὲ ἐν ἑνί, γέγονεν πάντων ἔνοχος.
ὁ γὰρ εἰπών• μὴ μοιχεύσῃς, εἶπεν καί• μὴ φονεύσῃς• εἰ δὲ οὐ μοιχεύεις φονεύεις δέ, γέγονας παραβάτης νόμου.
Οὕτως λαλεῖτε καὶ οὕτως ποιεῖτε ὡς διὰ νόμου ἐλευθερίας μέλλοντες κρίνεσθαι.
ἡ γὰρ κρίσις ἀνέλεος τῷ μὴ ποιήσαντι ἔλεος• κατακαυχᾶται ἔλεος κρίσεως.
G415+1
Τί τὸ ὄφελος, ἀδελφοί μου, ἐὰν πίστιν λέγῃ τις ἔχειν ἔργα δὲ μὴ ἔχῃ; μὴ δύναται ἡ πίστις σῶσαι αὐτόν;
ἐὰν ἀδελφὸς ἢ ἀδελφὴ γυμνοὶ ὑπάρχωσιν καὶ λειπόμενοι ὦσιν τῆς ἐφημέρου τροφῆς
εἴπῃ δέ τις αὐτοῖς ἐξ ὑμῶν• ὑπάγετε ἐν εἰρήνῃ, θερμαίνεσθε καὶ χορτάζεσθε, μὴ δῶτε δὲ αὐτοῖς τὰ ἐπιτήδεια τοῦ σώματος, τί τὸ ὄφελος;
οὕτως καὶ ἡ πίστις, ἐὰν μὴ ἔχῃ ἔργα, νεκρά ἐστιν καθʼ ἑαυτήν.
Ἀλλʼ ἐρεῖ τις• σὺ πίστιν ἔχεις, κἀγὼ ἔργα ἔχω• δεῖξόν μοι τὴν πίστιν σου χωρὶς τῶν ἔργων, κἀγώ σοι δείξω ἐκ τῶν ἔργων μου τὴν πίστιν.
σὺ πιστεύεις ὅτι εἷς ἐστιν ὁ θεός, καλῶς ποιεῖς• καὶ τὰ δαιμόνια πιστεύουσιν καὶ φρίσσουσιν.
Θέλεις δὲ γνῶναι, ὦ ἄνθρωπε κενέ, ὅτι ἡ πίστις χωρὶς τῶν ἔργων ἀργή ἐστιν;
Ἀβραὰμ ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη ἀνενέγκας Ἰσαὰκ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον;
βλέπεις ὅτι ἡ πίστις συνήργει τοῖς ἔργοις αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἔργων ἡ πίστις ἐτελειώθη,
καὶ ἐπληρώθη ἡ γραφὴ ἡ λέγουσα• ἐπίστευσεν δὲ Ἀβραὰμ τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην καὶ φίλος θεοῦ ἐκλήθη.
ὁρᾶτε ὅτι ἐξ ἔργων δικαιοῦται ἄνθρωπος καὶ οὐκ ἐκ πίστεως μόνον.
ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Ῥαὰβ ἡ πόρνη οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη ὑποδεξαμένη τοὺς ἀγγέλους καὶ ἑτέρᾳ ὁδῷ ἐκβαλοῦσα;
ὥσπερ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα χωρὶς πνεύματος νεκρόν ἐστιν, οὕτως καὶ ἡ πίστις χωρὶς ἔργων νεκρά ἐστιν.
phrasing
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