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James 3
James 3:1-18
Shared June 5th, 2020
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James 3:1-18
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The Tongue Guides the Whole Body
ἀδελφοί μου,
Vocative Address
Μὴ πολλοὶ διδάσκαλοι γίνεσθε, ...
Imperative
εἰδότες ὅτι μεῖζον κρίμα λημψόμεθα.
Causal Participle (Ground)
πολλὰ γὰρ πταίομεν ἅπαντες.
Explanation 1b-c
εἴ τις ἐν λόγῳ οὐ πταίει, οὗτος τέλειος ἀνὴρ
Cond. Statement (Wisdom)
δυνατὸς χαλιναγωγῆσαι καὶ ὅλον τὸ σῶμα.
Apposition / Explanation 2b
εἰ δὲ τῶν ἵππων τοὺς χαλινοὺς εἰς τὰ στόματα βάλλομεν
Condition 3c
εἰς τὸ πείθεσθαι αὐτοὺς ἡμῖν,
Purpose 3a
καὶ ὅλον τὸ σῶμα αὐτῶν μετάγομεν.
Illustration 2b-c
ἰδοὺ καὶ τὰ πλοῖα
Parallel
τηλικαῦτα ὄντα
Concession
καὶ ὑπὸ ἀνέμων σκληρῶν ἐλαυνόμενα,
Expansion
μετάγεται ὑπὸ ἐλαχίστου πηδαλίου
Assertion
ὅπου ἡ ὁρμὴ τοῦ εὐθύνοντος βούλεται,
Place
οὕτως καὶ ἡ γλῶσσα μικρὸν μέλος ἐστὶν
Comparison 4a-e
καὶ μεγάλα αὐχεῖ.
Both/And (Contrast 5a)
The Violence of the Tongue and Fresh Water
ἰδοὺ ἡλίκον πῦρ ἡλίκην ὕλην ἀνάπτει•
Assertion / Explanation 5a-b
καὶ ἡ γλῶσσα πῦρ•
Problem / Comparison
ὁ κόσμος τῆς ἀδικίας
Epexegetical 6a
ἡ γλῶσσα καθίσταται ἐν τοῖς μέλεσιν ἡμῶν,
Restatement 6a-b
ἡ σπιλοῦσα ὅλον τὸ σῶμα
Description
καὶ φλογίζουσα τὸν τροχὸν τῆς γενέσεως
καὶ φλογιζομένη ὑπὸ τῆς γεέννης.
Source
πᾶσα γὰρ φύσις θηρίων τε καὶ πετεινῶν, ... δαμάζεται καὶ δεδάμασται τῇ φύσει τῇ ἀνθρωπίνῃ,
Ground 6
ἑρπετῶν τε καὶ ἐναλίων
Gen-SPEC
τὴν δὲ γλῶσσαν οὐδεὶς δαμάσαι δύναται ἀνθρώπων,
Contrast 7a
ἀκατάστατον κακόν,
Explanation 8a
μεστὴ ἰοῦ θανατηφόρου.
Content
ἐν αὐτῇ εὐλογοῦμεν τὸν κύριον καὶ πατέρα
Expansion 8b
καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ καταρώμεθα τοὺς ἀνθρώπους
Expansion / Both-And
τοὺς καθʼ ὁμοίωσιν θεοῦ γεγονότας,
Epexegetical 9b
ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ στόματος ἐξέρχεται εὐλογία καὶ κατάρα.
Restatement 9
ἀδελφοί μου,
Vocative Address
οὐ χρή, ... ταῦτα οὕτως γίνεσθαι.
Conclusion / Plea
μήτι ἡ πηγὴ ἐκ τῆς αὐτῆς ὀπῆς βρύει τὸ γλυκὺ καὶ τὸ πικρόν;
Q / Exp. 10b-c (Wisdom)
ἀδελφοί μου,
Vocative Address
μὴ δύναται, ... συκῆ ἐλαίας ποιῆσαι
Question / Expansion 11a
ἢ ἄμπελος σῦκα;
Contrast / Expansion
οὔτε ἁλυκὸν γλυκὺ ποιῆσαι ὕδωρ.
Conclusion / Expansion 6c-d
The Fruit of Wisdom is Works
Τίς σοφὸς καὶ ἐπιστήμων ἐν ὑμῖν;
Question / Condition
δειξάτω ... τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ
Imperative ("Then")
ἐκ τῆς καλῆς ἀναστροφῆς
Means
ἐν πραΰτητι σοφίας.
Manner
εἰ δὲ ζῆλον πικρὸν ἔχετε καὶ ἐριθείαν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ ὑμῶν,
Contrast 13 / Condition 14b
μὴ κατακαυχᾶσθε καὶ ψεύδεσθε κατὰ τῆς ἀληθείας.
Imperative ("Then")
οὐκ ἔστιν αὕτη ἡ σοφία ἄνωθεν κατερχομένη
ἀλλʼ ἐπίγειος,
Contrast 15a
ψυχική,
Series
δαιμονιώδης.
γὰρ
Ground 15
ὅπου ... ζῆλος καὶ ἐριθεία,
ἐκεῖ ἀκαταστασία καὶ πᾶν φαῦλον πρᾶγμα.
(Ground 15)
ἡ δὲ ἄνωθεν σοφία πρῶτον μὲν ἁγνή ἐστιν,
Contrast 16b-c
ἔπειτα
Progression
εἰρηνική,
ἐπιεικής,
εὐπειθής,
μεστὴ ἐλέους καὶ καρπῶν ἀγαθῶν,
ἀδιάκριτος,
ἀνυπόκριτος.
καρπὸς δὲ δικαιοσύνης ... σπείρεται
Concluding Statement
ἐν εἰρήνῃ
τοῖς ποιοῦσιν εἰρήνην.
Dative of Sphere
Credit to Craig Blomberg for seeing this development: Des --> Exp --> Src
This statement, " And the tongue is a fire, a world of unrighteousness " is unpacked through the rest of the passage.
These statements unpack the results of a tongue guiding the body by the way of the devil. Thus they serve as a stern caution.
"...it is not necessary for these things to be this way!" (My translation)
This list of the positive attributes of wisdom echoes the imperative to "let his works be shown from his good conduct" in verse 13.
Μὴ πολλοὶ διδάσκαλοι γίνεσθε, ἀδελφοί μου, εἰδότες ὅτι μεῖζον κρίμα λημψόμεθα.
πολλὰ γὰρ πταίομεν ἅπαντες. εἴ τις ἐν λόγῳ οὐ πταίει, οὗτος τέλειος ἀνὴρ δυνατὸς χαλιναγωγῆσαι καὶ ὅλον τὸ σῶμα.
εἰ δὲ τῶν ἵππων τοὺς χαλινοὺς εἰς τὰ στόματα βάλλομεν εἰς τὸ πείθεσθαι αὐτοὺς ἡμῖν, καὶ ὅλον τὸ σῶμα αὐτῶν μετάγομεν.
ἰδοὺ καὶ τὰ πλοῖα τηλικαῦτα ὄντα καὶ ὑπὸ ἀνέμων σκληρῶν ἐλαυνόμενα, μετάγεται ὑπὸ ἐλαχίστου πηδαλίου ὅπου ἡ ὁρμὴ τοῦ εὐθύνοντος βούλεται,
οὕτως καὶ ἡ γλῶσσα μικρὸν μέλος ἐστὶν καὶ μεγάλα αὐχεῖ. ἰδοὺ ἡλίκον πῦρ ἡλίκην ὕλην ἀνάπτει•
G849+1
καὶ ἡ γλῶσσα πῦρ• ὁ κόσμος τῆς ἀδικίας ἡ γλῶσσα καθίσταται ἐν τοῖς μέλεσιν ἡμῶν, ἡ σπιλοῦσα ὅλον τὸ σῶμα καὶ φλογίζουσα τὸν τροχὸν τῆς γενέσεως καὶ φλογιζομένη ὑπὸ τῆς γεέννης.
πᾶσα γὰρ φύσις θηρίων τε καὶ πετεινῶν, ἑρπετῶν τε καὶ ἐναλίων δαμάζεται καὶ δεδάμασται τῇ φύσει τῇ ἀνθρωπίνῃ,
τὴν δὲ γλῶσσαν οὐδεὶς δαμάσαι δύναται ἀνθρώπων, ἀκατάστατον κακόν, μεστὴ ἰοῦ θανατηφόρου.
ἐν αὐτῇ εὐλογοῦμεν τὸν κύριον καὶ πατέρα καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ καταρώμεθα τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τοὺς καθʼ ὁμοίωσιν θεοῦ γεγονότας,
ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ στόματος ἐξέρχεται εὐλογία καὶ κατάρα. οὐ χρή, ἀδελφοί μου, ταῦτα οὕτως γίνεσθαι.
μήτι ἡ πηγὴ ἐκ τῆς αὐτῆς ὀπῆς βρύει τὸ γλυκὺ καὶ τὸ πικρόν;
μὴ δύναται, ἀδελφοί μου, συκῆ ἐλαίας ποιῆσαι ἢ ἄμπελος σῦκα; οὔτε ἁλυκὸν γλυκὺ ποιῆσαι ὕδωρ.
Τίς σοφὸς καὶ ἐπιστήμων ἐν ὑμῖν; δειξάτω ἐκ τῆς καλῆς ἀναστροφῆς τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ ἐν πραΰτητι σοφίας.
εἰ δὲ ζῆλον πικρὸν ἔχετε καὶ ἐριθείαν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ ὑμῶν, μὴ κατακαυχᾶσθε καὶ ψεύδεσθε κατὰ τῆς ἀληθείας.
οὐκ ἔστιν αὕτη ἡ σοφία ἄνωθεν κατερχομένη ἀλλʼ ἐπίγειος, ψυχική, δαιμονιώδης.
ὅπου γὰρ ζῆλος καὶ ἐριθεία, ἐκεῖ ἀκαταστασία καὶ πᾶν φαῦλον πρᾶγμα.
ἡ δὲ ἄνωθεν σοφία πρῶτον μὲν ἁγνή ἐστιν, ἔπειτα εἰρηνική, ἐπιεικής, εὐπειθής, μεστὴ ἐλέους καὶ καρπῶν ἀγαθῶν, ἀδιάκριτος, ἀνυπόκριτος.
καρπὸς δὲ δικαιοσύνης ἐν εἰρήνῃ σπείρεται τοῖς ποιοῦσιν εἰρήνην.
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