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James 5
James 5:1-20
Shared June 17th, 2020
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James 5:1-20
Ἄγε νῦν οἱ πλούσιοι, κλαύσατε ὀλολύζοντες ἐπὶ ταῖς ταλαιπωρίαις ὑμῶν ταῖς ἐπερχομέναις.
ὁ πλοῦτος ὑμῶν σέσηπεν καὶ τὰ ἱμάτια ὑμῶν σητόβρωτα γέγονεν,
ὁ χρυσὸς ὑμῶν καὶ ὁ ἄργυρος κατίωται καὶ ὁ ἰὸς αὐτῶν εἰς μαρτύριον ὑμῖν ἔσται καὶ φάγεται τὰς σάρκας ὑμῶν ὡς πῦρ. ἐθησαυρίσατε ἐν ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις.
ἰδοὺ ὁ μισθὸς τῶν ἐργατῶν τῶν ἀμησάντων τὰς χώρας ὑμῶν ὁ ἀπεστερημένος ἀφʼ ὑμῶν κράζει, καὶ αἱ βοαὶ τῶν θερισάντων εἰς τὰ ὦτα κυρίου σαβαὼθ εἰσεληλύθασιν.
ἐτρυφήσατε ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐσπαταλήσατε, ἐθρέψατε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν ἐν ἡμέρᾳ σφαγῆς,
κατεδικάσατε, ἐφονεύσατε τὸν δίκαιον, οὐκ ἀντιτάσσεται ὑμῖν.
Μακροθυμήσατε οὖν, ἀδελφοί, ἕως τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ κυρίου. ἰδοὺ ὁ γεωργὸς ἐκδέχεται τὸν τίμιον καρπὸν τῆς γῆς μακροθυμῶν ἐπʼ αὐτῷ ἕως λάβῃ πρόϊμον καὶ ὄψιμον.
G4290+1
μακροθυμήσατε καὶ ὑμεῖς, στηρίξατε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν, ὅτι ἡ παρουσία τοῦ κυρίου ἤγγικεν.
μὴ στενάζετε, ἀδελφοί, κατʼ ἀλλήλων ἵνα μὴ κριθῆτε• ἰδοὺ ὁ κριτὴς πρὸ τῶν θυρῶν ἕστηκεν.
ὑπόδειγμα λάβετε, ἀδελφοί, τῆς κακοπαθίας καὶ τῆς μακροθυμίας τοὺς προφήτας οἳ ἐλάλησαν ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι κυρίου.
ἰδοὺ μακαρίζομεν τοὺς ὑπομείναντας• τὴν ὑπομονὴν Ἰὼβ ἠκούσατε καὶ τὸ τέλος κυρίου εἴδετε, ὅτι πολύσπλαγχνός ἐστιν ὁ κύριος καὶ οἰκτίρμων.
Πρὸ πάντων δέ, ἀδελφοί μου, μὴ ὀμνύετε μήτε τὸν οὐρανὸν μήτε τὴν γῆν μήτε ἄλλον τινὰ ὅρκον• ἤτω δὲ ὑμῶν τὸ ναὶ ναὶ καὶ τὸ οὒ οὔ, ἵνα μὴ ὑπὸ κρίσιν πέσητε.
Κακοπαθεῖ τις ἐν ὑμῖν, προσευχέσθω• εὐθυμεῖ τις, ψαλλέτω•
ἀσθενεῖ τις ἐν ὑμῖν, προσκαλεσάσθω τοὺς πρεσβυτέρους τῆς ἐκκλησίας καὶ προσευξάσθωσαν ἐπʼ αὐτὸν ἀλείψαντες [αὐτὸν] ἐλαίῳ ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου.
καὶ ἡ εὐχὴ τῆς πίστεως σώσει τὸν κάμνοντα καὶ ἐγερεῖ αὐτὸν ὁ κύριος• κἂν ἁμαρτίας ᾖ πεποιηκώς, ἀφεθήσεται αὐτῷ.
ἐξομολογεῖσθε οὖν ἀλλήλοις τὰς ἁμαρτίας καὶ εὔχεσθε ὑπὲρ ἀλλήλων ὅπως ἰαθῆτε. Πολὺ ἰσχύει δέησις δικαίου ἐνεργουμένη.
Ἠλίας ἄνθρωπος ἦν ὁμοιοπαθὴς ἡμῖν, καὶ προσευχῇ προσηύξατο τοῦ μὴ βρέξαι, καὶ οὐκ ἔβρεξεν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἐνιαυτοὺς τρεῖς καὶ μῆνας ἕξ•
καὶ πάλιν προσηύξατο, καὶ ὁ οὐρανὸς ὑετὸν ἔδωκεν καὶ ἡ γῆ ἐβλάστησεν τὸν καρπὸν αὐτῆς.
Ἀδελφοί μου, ἐάν τις ἐν ὑμῖν πλανηθῇ ἀπὸ τῆς ἀληθείας καὶ ἐπιστρέψῃ τις αὐτόν,
γινωσκέτω ὅτι ὁ ἐπιστρέψας ἁμαρτωλὸν ἐκ πλάνης ὁδοῦ αὐτοῦ σώσει ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἐκ θανάτου καὶ καλύψει πλῆθος ἁμαρτιῶν.
Interpreting the Times
οἱ πλούσιοι,
Vocative Address
Ἄγε νῦν ... κλαύσατε
Imperative
ὀλολύζοντες ἐπὶ ταῖς ταλαιπωρίαις ὑμῶν
Contemporaneous (Ground)
ταῖς ἐπερχομέναις.
Adjectival
ὁ πλοῦτος ὑμῶν σέσηπεν
Event
καὶ τὰ ἱμάτια ὑμῶν σητόβρωτα γέγονεν,
Series
ὁ χρυσὸς ὑμῶν καὶ ὁ ἄργυρος κατίωται
Parallel 2a
καὶ ὁ ἰὸς αὐτῶν εἰς μαρτύριον ὑμῖν ἔσται
Assertion / Pronouncement
καὶ φάγεται τὰς σάρκας ὑμῶν ὡς πῦρ.
Expands 3b
ἐθησαυρίσατε
Ground 1-3c
ἐν ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις.
Temporal
ἰδοὺ
Exclamation
ὁ μισθὸς τῶν ἐργατῶν τῶν ἀμησάντων τὰς χώρας ὑμῶν ... κράζει,
Assertion (Wisdom)
ὁ ἀπεστερημένος ἀφʼ ὑμῶν
Epexegetical 4b
καὶ αἱ βοαὶ τῶν θερισάντων εἰς τὰ ὦτα κυρίου σαβαὼθ εἰσεληλύθασιν.
Result of Injustice 4b-c
ἐτρυφήσατε ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς
Charge
καὶ ἐσπαταλήσατε,
Explains 5a
ἐθρέψατε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν
Parallel 5a-b
ἐν ἡμέρᾳ σφαγῆς,
κατεδικάσατε,
Charge 2
ἐφονεύσατε τὸν δίκαιον,
Progression / Charge 3
οὐκ ἀντιτάσσεται ὑμῖν.
Concessive 6a-b
Be Patient For Our Lord's Return
ἀδελφοί,
Vocative Address
Μακροθυμήσατε οὖν,
Exhortation (Inference 1-6)
... ἕως τῆς παρουσίας τοῦ κυρίου.
Duration 7b
ἰδοὺ
ὁ γεωργὸς ἐκδέχεται τὸν τίμιον καρπὸν τῆς γῆς
Illustration (Wisdom)
μακροθυμῶν ἐπʼ αὐτῷ
Manner 7e
ἕως λάβῃ πρόϊμον καὶ ὄψιμον.
Duration 7e
μακροθυμήσατε καὶ ὑμεῖς,
Parallel
στηρίξατε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν,
Exhortation
ὅτι ἡ παρουσία τοῦ κυρίου ἤγγικεν.
Ground 8b
ἀδελφοί,
Vocative Address
μὴ στενάζετε, ... κατʼ ἀλλήλων
ἵνα μὴ κριθῆτε•
Neg. Purpose
ἰδοὺ
ὁ κριτὴς πρὸ τῶν θυρῶν ἕστηκεν.
Warning
ἀδελφοί,
Vocative Address
ὑπόδειγμα λάβετε, ... τῆς κακοπαθίας καὶ τῆς μακροθυμίας τοὺς προφήτας
Example (Wisdom)
οἳ ἐλάλησαν ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι κυρίου.
Apposition 10b
ἰδοὺ
μακαρίζομεν τοὺς ὑπομείναντας•
τὴν ὑπομονὴν Ἰὼβ ἠκούσατε
Example 11b
καὶ τὸ τέλος κυρίου εἴδετε,
Progression
ὅτι πολύσπλαγχνός ἐστιν ὁ κύριος καὶ οἰκτίρμων.
Ground 11c-d
"Do Not Take An Oath at All"
ἀδελφοί μου,
Vocative Address
Πρὸ πάντων δέ, ... μὴ ὀμνύετε
(-) Imperative
μήτε τὸν οὐρανὸν
Reference (Means)
μήτε τὴν γῆν
Reference (Means)
μήτε ἄλλον τινὰ ὅρκον•
Reference (Means)
ἤτω δὲ ὑμῶν τὸ ναὶ ναὶ
(+) Imperative (Wisdom)
καὶ τὸ οὒ οὔ,
Expands 12f
ἵνα μὴ ὑπὸ κρίσιν πέσητε.
Purpose 12b-g
The Power of Prayer in the Righteous
Κακοπαθεῖ τις ἐν ὑμῖν,
Question / Situation
προσευχέσθω•
Exhortation / Response
εὐθυμεῖ τις,
Question / Situation
ψαλλέτω•
Exhortation / Response
ἀσθενεῖ τις ἐν ὑμῖν,
Question / Situation
προσκαλεσάσθω τοὺς πρεσβυτέρους τῆς ἐκκλησίας
Exhortation / Response
καὶ προσευξάσθωσαν ἐπʼ αὐτὸν
ἀλείψαντες [αὐτὸν] ἐλαίῳ
Manner
ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου.
Means (Identification)
καὶ ἡ εὐχὴ τῆς πίστεως σώσει τὸν κάμνοντα
Promise
καὶ ἐγερεῖ αὐτὸν ὁ κύριος•
κἂν ἁμαρτίας ᾖ
Condition ("If")
πεποιηκώς,
Adverbial 15c
ἀφεθήσεται αὐτῷ.
Result 15a / ("Then" 15c)
ἐξομολογεῖσθε οὖν ἀλλήλοις τὰς ἁμαρτίας
Inference
καὶ εὔχεσθε ὑπὲρ ἀλλήλων
Accompanied Action 16a / Seq
ὅπως ἰαθῆτε.
Purpose 16a-b
Πολὺ ἰσχύει δέησις δικαίου
Ground
ἐνεργουμένη.
Attributive Participle
Ἠλίας ἄνθρωπος ἦν ὁμοιοπαθὴς ἡμῖν,
Example (Wisdom)
καὶ προσευχῇ προσηύξατο τοῦ μὴ βρέξαι,
Example Action
καὶ οὐκ ἔβρεξεν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς
Example Result 17b
ἐνιαυτοὺς τρεῖς καὶ μῆνας ἕξ•
Duration 17c
καὶ πάλιν προσηύξατο,
Example Action Cont
καὶ ὁ οὐρανὸς ὑετὸν ἔδωκεν
Example Result (Climax)
καὶ ἡ γῆ ἐβλάστησεν τὸν καρπὸν αὐτῆς.
Sequence
The Catcher in the Rye
Ἀδελφοί μου,
Vocative Address
ἐάν τις ἐν ὑμῖν πλανηθῇ ἀπὸ τῆς ἀληθείας
"If" Statement (Situation)
καὶ ἐπιστρέψῃ τις αὐτόν,
Possible Result (Prog)
γινωσκέτω ὅτι
"Then" Statement (Response)
ὁ ἐπιστρέψας ἁμαρτωλὸν ἐκ πλάνης ὁδοῦ αὐτοῦ
Action
σώσει ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἐκ θανάτου
Result 1
καὶ καλύψει πλῆθος ἁμαρτιῶν.
Result 2 (Sequence)
Matthew 5:33-37 " Again you have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform to the Lord what you have sworn.’ 34 But I say to you, Do not take an oath at all, either by heaven, for it is the throne of God, 35 or by the earth, for it is his footstool, or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. 36 And do not take an oath by your head, for you cannot make one hair white or black. 37 Let what you say be simply ‘Yes’ or ‘No’; anything more than this comes from evil. "
“ But woe to you who are rich, for you have received your consolation. " Lk 6:24.
“ Woe to you who laugh now, for you shall mourn and weep. " Lk 6:25b
" 20 But God said to him, ‘Fool! This night your soul is required of you, and the things you have prepared, whose will they be?’ 21 So is the one who lays up treasure for himself and is not rich toward God. ” Lk 12:20–21.
“Blessed are you who are poor, for yours is the kingdom of God. 21 “Blessed are you who are hungry now, for you shall be satisfied. “Blessed are you who weep now, for you shall laugh. 22 “ Blessed are you when people hate you and when they exclude you and revile you and spurn your name as evil, on account of the Son of Man! 23 Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven; for so their fathers did to the prophets." Lk 6:20b–23.
Lk 12:54-56
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