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Randall Rains
Veteran and 1983 graduate of LIFE Bible College in LA, CA.
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At Eph 1:17 Paul alludes to the Knowledge of God. Here Peter expounds on that foundational theme.
2 Peter 1:1-11
It is not WHAT we know, but WHO that let's us know/attain/experience what God has planned for those who trust and obey the Word of Truth.
Ephesians 1:15-23
One long sentence (v3-14). Does it represent a hymn?
Ephesians 1:1-14
Paul's plans to visit are sincere but subject to the will of his Lord
Romans 15:22-33
Paul's diplomatic appeal to a Church he did not found, but for which he has an Apostle's heart.
Romans 15:8-21
As the night sky begins to lighten as the dawn approaches we are reminded of our Lord's own words - Love your neighbor as yourself.
Romans 13:8-14
The right minded member of the body will show genuine love.
Romans 12:9-21
Paul explores several aspects of individuality within the corporate.
Romans 12:1-21
The LXX uses an IF/THEN construction between v4 and v5ff in translating the Hebrew text.
Haggai 1:1-6
Paul calls on a few by name then provides a glorious exposition of what it means to have the Lord near and to have God among them.
Philippians 4:2-9
Paul stretching forward to the upward call of God in (the knowing of?) Christ Jesus!
Philippians 3:12-4:1
Paul assumes those who hear these words share in the Knowing of Christ.
Philippians 3:1-11
What can compare to the 'surpassingness' of knowing Christ our Lord?
Philippians 3:1-11
Paul promises to send from his side two men, a brother and a dear son, to comfort those in Philippi who have been such a comfort to him.
Philippians 2:19-30
view all (15 total)
Romans 12-15
Romans 12-15
Paul's teaching in Ch 12-15 must be seen in light of his explanation of grace as it relates to Israel in Ch 9-11.
Published May 29th, 2022
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Main point summary
I have related to you of the Righteousness of God which is of faithfulness first and last - the Faithfulness of the God who keeps His covenants; the Faithfulness of His Messiah; and our faithfulness to God. To proclaim His faithfulness necessitates explaining why His chosen people seem to have been cut off. They have been cut off at this present time so that Messiah can complete His mission to save the whole world. This grace that He has shown to Jew and Gentile means we have to learn to live in the new reality as the Body of Christ. Therefore, we must attain to the lofty goal of presenting ourselves together as one living and bodily sacrifice to God. That requires a transformation of our thinking and understanding of one another, different as we are.
Romans 11:35-15:33
ἢ τίς προέδωκεν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἀνταποδοθήσεται αὐτῷ;
Ch8 (Ending words v37-39)...No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us. For I am sure that neither death nor life, nor angels nor rulers, nor things present nor things to come, nor powers, nor height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
ὅτι ἐξ αὐτοῦ καὶ δι’ αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα· αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, ἀμήν.
Ch9-11 But what about the Jews? 11:28-32 ... As regards the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But as regards election, they are beloved for the sake of their forefathers. For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. For just as you were at one time disobedient to God but now have received mercy because of their disobedience, so they too have now been disobedient in order that by the mercy shown to you they also may now receive mercy . For God has consigned all to disobedience, that he may have mercy on all.
z I appeal to you therefore, brothers, 1 by the mercies of God, a to present your bodies b as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship. 2
Παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, διὰ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν τοῦ θεοῦ παραστῆσαι τὰ σώματα ὑμῶν θυσίαν ζῶσαν ἁγίαν ⸂ εὐάρεστον τῷ θεῷ ⸃ , τὴν λογικὴν λατρείαν ὑμῶν· καὶ μὴ ⸀ συσχηματίζεσθε τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ, ἀλλὰ ⸀ μεταμορφοῦσθε τῇ ἀνακαινώσει τοῦ ⸀ νοός, εἰς τὸ δοκιμάζειν ὑμᾶς τί τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ, τὸ ἀγαθὸν καὶ εὐάρεστον καὶ τέλειον. Λέγω γὰρ διὰ τῆς χάριτος τῆς δοθείσης μοι παντὶ τῷ ὄντι ἐν ὑμῖν μὴ ὑπερφρονεῖν παρ’ ὃ δεῖ φρονεῖν, ἀλλὰ φρονεῖν εἰς τὸ σωφρονεῖν, ἑκάστῳ ὡς ὁ θεὸς ἐμέρισεν μέτρον πίστεως. καθάπερ γὰρ ἐν ἑνὶ σώματι ⸂ πολλὰ μέλη ⸃ ἔχομεν, τὰ δὲ μέλη πάντα οὐ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔχει πρᾶξιν, οὕτως οἱ πολλοὶ ἓν σῶμά ἐσμεν ἐν Χριστῷ, ⸀ τὸ δὲ καθ’ εἷς ἀλλήλων μέλη. ἔχοντες δὲ χαρίσματα κατὰ τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἡμῖν διάφορα, εἴτε προφητείαν κατὰ τὴν ἀναλογίαν τῆς πίστεως, εἴτε διακονίαν ἐν τῇ διακονίᾳ, εἴτε ὁ διδάσκων ἐν τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ, εἴτε ὁ παρακαλῶν ἐν τῇ παρακλήσει, ὁ μεταδιδοὺς ἐν ἁπλότητι, ὁ προϊστάμενος ἐν σπουδῇ, ὁ ἐλεῶν ἐν ἱλαρότητι.
12:1 In light of this shared mercy - Offer your bodies(plural) as a continual and living sacrifice(singular) to God. ONE SACRIFICE
c Do not be conformed to this world, 1 but be transformed by d the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may e discern what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect. 2
12:2 Do not let your thinking be shaped by the thinking of this age but look to God for renewing your(p) mind(s) so that you(p) might be evidence of the Will of God (all that is good & acceptable & perfect) in his church in this age. ONE MIND/UNDERSTANDING.
For f by the grace given to me I say to everyone among you g not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think with sober judgment, h each according to i the measure of faith that God has assigned. For j as in one body we have many members, 1 and the members do not all have the same function, so we, k though many, l are one body in Christ, and individually m members one of another. n Having gifts that differ according to the grace given to us, let us use them: if o prophecy, p in proportion to our faith; if q service, in our serving; the one who teaches, in his teaching; the one who exhorts, in his exhortation; the one who contributes, in generosity; r the one who leads, 1 with zeal; the one who does acts of mercy, with s cheerfulness.
12:3-8 I SAY TO EVERYONE: To those with A Renewed Mind: hold in your mind a right consideration of one another - we the many, are one Body in Christ , but individually members of One Another having gifts that differ according to the grace given to us.
t Let love be genuine. u Abhor what is evil; hold fast to what is good. v Love one another with brotherly affection. w Outdo one another in showing honor. Do not be slothful in zeal, x be fervent in spirit, 1 y serve the Lord. z Rejoice in hope, a be patient in tribulation, b be constant in prayer. c Contribute to the needs of the saints and d seek to show hospitality. e Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse them. f Rejoice with those who rejoice, weep with those who weep. g Live in harmony with one another. h Do not be haughty, but associate with the lowly. 1 i Never be wise in your own sight. j Repay no one evil for evil, but k give thought to do what is honorable in the sight of all. If possible, so far as it depends on you, l live peaceably with all. Beloved, m never avenge yourselves, but leave it 1 to the wrath of God, for it is written, n “Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord.” To the contrary, o “if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink; for by so doing you will heap burning coals on his head.” Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.
Ἡ ἀγάπη ἀνυπόκριτος. ἀποστυγοῦντες τὸ πονηρόν, κολλώμενοι τῷ ἀγαθῷ· τῇ φιλαδελφίᾳ εἰς ἀλλήλους φιλόστοργοι, τῇ τιμῇ ἀλλήλους προηγούμενοι, τῇ σπουδῇ μὴ ὀκνηροί, τῷ πνεύματι ζέοντες, τῷ κυρίῳ δουλεύοντες, τῇ ἐλπίδι χαίροντες, τῇ θλίψει ὑπομένοντες, τῇ προσευχῇ προσκαρτεροῦντες, ταῖς χρείαις τῶν ἁγίων κοινωνοῦντες, τὴν φιλοξενίαν διώκοντες. εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς ⸀ διώκοντας, εὐλογεῖτε καὶ μὴ καταρᾶσθε. χαίρειν μετὰ ⸀ χαιρόντων, κλαίειν μετὰ κλαιόντων. τὸ αὐτὸ εἰς ἀλλήλους φρονοῦντες, μὴ τὰ ὑψηλὰ φρονοῦντες ἀλλὰ τοῖς ταπεινοῖς συναπαγόμενοι. μὴ γίνεσθε φρόνιμοι παρ’ ἑαυτοῖς. μηδενὶ κακὸν ἀντὶ κακοῦ ἀποδιδόντες· προνοούμενοι καλὰ ἐνώπιον πάντων ἀνθρώπων· εἰ δυνατόν, τὸ ἐξ ὑμῶν μετὰ πάντων ἀνθρώπων εἰρηνεύοντες· μὴ ἑαυτοὺς ἐκδικοῦντες, ἀγαπητοί, ἀλλὰ δότε τόπον τῇ ὀργῇ, γέγραπται γάρ· Ἐμοὶ ἐκδίκησις, ἐγὼ ἀνταποδώσω, λέγει κύριος. ⸂ ἀλλὰ ἐὰν ⸃ πεινᾷ ὁ ἐχθρός σου, ψώμιζε αὐτόν· ἐὰν διψᾷ, πότιζε αὐτόν· τοῦτο γὰρ ποιῶν ἄνθρακας πυρὸς σωρεύσεις ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ. μὴ νικῶ ὑπὸ τοῦ κακοῦ, ἀλλὰ νίκα ἐν τῷ ἀγαθῷ τὸ κακόν.
12:9-21 A right consideration of one another will exemplify Genuine Love in these many particulars.
Let every person p be subject to the governing authorities. For q there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore whoever resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment. For rulers are not a terror to good conduct, but to bad. Would you have no fear of the one who is in authority? Then do what is good, and you r will receive his approval, for s he is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, t an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on the wrongdoer. Therefore one must be in subjection, not only to avoid God’s wrath but also u for the sake of conscience. For because of this you also pay taxes, for the authorities are ministers of God, attending to this very thing. v Pay to all what is owed to them: taxes to whom taxes are owed, revenue to whom revenue is owed, respect to whom respect is owed, honor to whom honor is owed.
Πᾶσα ψυχὴ ἐξουσίαις ὑπερεχούσαις ὑποτασσέσθω, οὐ γὰρ ἔστιν ἐξουσία εἰ μὴ ὑπὸ θεοῦ, αἱ δὲ ⸀ οὖσαι ⸀ ὑπὸ θεοῦ τεταγμέναι εἰσίν. ὥστε ὁ ἀντιτασσόμενος τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ διαταγῇ ἀνθέστηκεν, οἱ δὲ ἀνθεστηκότες ἑαυτοῖς κρίμα λήμψονται. οἱ γὰρ ἄρχοντες οὐκ εἰσὶν φόβος ⸂ τῷ ἀγαθῷ ἔργῳ ⸃ ἀλλὰ ⸂ τῷ κακῷ ⸃ . θέλεις δὲ μὴ φοβεῖσθαι τὴν ἐξουσίαν; τὸ ἀγαθὸν ποίει, καὶ ἕξεις ἔπαινον ἐξ αὐτῆς· θεοῦ γὰρ διάκονός ἐστιν σοὶ εἰς τὸ ἀγαθόν. ἐὰν δὲ τὸ κακὸν ποιῇς, φοβοῦ· οὐ γὰρ εἰκῇ τὴν μάχαιραν φορεῖ· θεοῦ γὰρ διάκονός ἐστιν, ἔκδικος εἰς ὀργὴν τῷ τὸ κακὸν πράσσοντι. διὸ ἀνάγκη ὑποτάσσεσθαι, οὐ μόνον διὰ τὴν ὀργὴν ἀλλὰ καὶ διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν, διὰ τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ φόρους τελεῖτε, λειτουργοὶ γὰρ θεοῦ εἰσιν εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο προσκαρτεροῦντες. ⸀ ἀπόδοτε πᾶσι τὰς ὀφειλάς, τῷ τὸν φόρον τὸν φόρον, τῷ τὸ τέλος τὸ τέλος, τῷ τὸν φόβον τὸν φόβον, τῷ τὴν τιμὴν τὴν τιμήν.
13:1-7 To those with A Renewed Mind: do not oppose those God has appointed.
w Owe no one anything, except to love each other, for x the one who loves another has fulfilled the law. For the commandments, y “You shall not commit adultery, You shall not murder, You shall not steal, You shall not covet,” and any other commandment, are summed up in this word: z “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” Love does no wrong to a neighbor; therefore a love is the fulfilling of the law.
Μηδενὶ μηδὲν ὀφείλετε, εἰ μὴ τὸ ⸂ ἀλλήλους ἀγαπᾶν ⸃ · ὁ γὰρ ἀγαπῶν τὸν ἕτερον νόμον πεπλήρωκεν. τὸ γάρ· Οὐ μοιχεύσεις, Οὐ φονεύσεις, Οὐ κλέψεις, Οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις, καὶ εἴ τις ἑτέρα ἐντολή, ἐν ⸂ τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ ⸃ ἀνακεφαλαιοῦται, ⸂ ἐν τῷ ⸃ · Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. ἡ ἀγάπη τῷ πλησίον κακὸν οὐκ ἐργάζεται· πλήρωμα οὖν νόμου ἡ ἀγάπη.
13:8-10 Owe only love for one another for - Love for one another has the imprimatur of the fulfillment of the Law. We can only love one another by...
Besides this you know the time, that the hour has come for you b to wake from sleep. c For salvation is nearer to us now than when we first believed. d The night is far gone; the day is at hand. So then let us e cast off f the works of darkness and g put on the armor of light. h Let us walk properly as in the daytime, i not in orgies and drunkenness, not in sexual immorality and sensuality, j not in quarreling and jealousy. But k put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, l to gratify its desires.
Καὶ τοῦτο εἰδότες τὸν καιρόν, ὅτι ὥρα ⸂ ἤδη ὑμᾶς ⸃ ἐξ ὕπνου ἐγερθῆναι, νῦν γὰρ ἐγγύτερον ἡμῶν ἡ σωτηρία ἢ ὅτε ἐπιστεύσαμεν. ἡ νὺξ προέκοψεν, ἡ δὲ ἡμέρα ἤγγικεν. ⸀ ἀποβαλώμεθα οὖν τὰ ἔργα τοῦ σκότους, ⸂ ἐνδυσώμεθα δὲ ⸃ τὰ ὅπλα τοῦ φωτός. ὡς ἐν ἡμέρᾳ εὐσχημόνως περιπατήσωμεν, μὴ κώμοις καὶ μέθαις, μὴ κοίταις καὶ ἀσελγείαις, μὴ ἔριδι καὶ ζήλῳ, ἀλλὰ ἐνδύσασθε τὸν κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, καὶ τῆς σαρκὸς πρόνοιαν μὴ ποιεῖσθε εἰς ἐπιθυμίας.
13:11-14 ... putting on Christ and making no provision for the flesh in this hour, as salvation approaches.
As for m the one who is weak in faith, welcome him, but not to quarrel over opinions. n One person believes he may eat anything, while the weak person eats only vegetables. Let not the one who eats despise the one who abstains, and o let not the one who abstains pass judgment on the one who eats, for God has welcomed him. p Who are you to pass judgment on the servant of another? It is before his own master 1 that he stands or falls. And he will be upheld, for the Lord is able to make him stand.
Τὸν δὲ ἀσθενοῦντα τῇ πίστει προσλαμβάνεσθε, μὴ εἰς διακρίσεις διαλογισμῶν. ὃς μὲν πιστεύει φαγεῖν πάντα, ὁ δὲ ἀσθενῶν λάχανα ἐσθίει. ὁ ἐσθίων τὸν μὴ ἐσθίοντα μὴ ἐξουθενείτω, ⸂ ὁ δὲ ⸃ μὴ ἐσθίων τὸν ἐσθίοντα μὴ κρινέτω, ὁ θεὸς γὰρ αὐτὸν προσελάβετο. σὺ τίς εἶ ὁ κρίνων ἀλλότριον οἰκέτην; τῷ ἰδίῳ κυρίῳ στήκει ἢ πίπτει· σταθήσεται δέ, ⸂ δυνατεῖ γὰρ ⸃ ὁ ⸀ κύριος στῆσαι αὐτόν.
14:1-4 To those with A Renewed Mind: the manner of your faithfulness to Christ is established in relationship with him as Lord. Who are you to pass judgement on the servant of another?
q One person esteems one day as better than another, while another esteems all days alike. r Each one should be fully convinced in his own mind. The one who observes the day, observes it in honor of the Lord. The one who eats, eats in honor of the Lord, since s he gives thanks to God, while the one who abstains, abstains in honor of the Lord and gives thanks to God. For t none of us lives to himself, and none of us dies to himself. For if we live, we live to the Lord, and if we die, we die to the Lord. So then, u whether we live or whether we die, we are the Lord’s. For to this end Christ v died and lived again, that he might be Lord both w of the dead and of the living.
Ὃς ⸀ μὲν κρίνει ἡμέραν παρ’ ἡμέραν, ὃς δὲ κρίνει πᾶσαν ἡμέραν· ἕκαστος ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ νοῒ πληροφορείσθω· ὁ φρονῶν τὴν ἡμέραν κυρίῳ ⸀ φρονεῖ. καὶ ὁ ἐσθίων κυρίῳ ἐσθίει, εὐχαριστεῖ γὰρ τῷ θεῷ· καὶ ὁ μὴ ἐσθίων κυρίῳ οὐκ ἐσθίει, καὶ εὐχαριστεῖ τῷ θεῷ. Οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἡμῶν ἑαυτῷ ζῇ, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἑαυτῷ ἀποθνῄσκει· ἐάν τε γὰρ ζῶμεν, τῷ κυρίῳ ζῶμεν, ἐάν τε ἀποθνῄσκωμεν, τῷ κυρίῳ ἀποθνῄσκομεν. ἐάν τε οὖν ζῶμεν ἐάν τε ἀποθνῄσκωμεν, τοῦ κυρίου ἐσμέν. εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ ⸀ Χριστὸς ⸀ ἀπέθανεν καὶ ἔζησεν ἵνα καὶ νεκρῶν καὶ ζώντων κυριεύσῃ.
14:5-9 Do not pass judgement on the servant of another because: Each one should be fully convinced in his own mind as to the manner of his faithfulness to his Lord, for we are all the Lord's.
Why do you pass judgment on your brother? Or you, why do you despise your brother? For w we will all stand before x the judgment seat of God; for it is written, y “As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess 1 to God.” So then z each of us will give an account of himself to God. a Therefore let us not pass judgment on one another any longer, but rather decide b never to put a stumbling block or hindrance in the way of a brother. I know and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus c that nothing is unclean in itself, d but it is unclean for anyone who thinks it unclean. For if your brother is grieved by what you eat, e you are no longer walking in love. f By what you eat, do not destroy the one for whom Christ died.
Σὺ δὲ τί κρίνεις τὸν ἀδελφόν σου; ἢ καὶ σὺ τί ἐξουθενεῖς τὸν ἀδελφόν σου; πάντες γὰρ παραστησόμεθα τῷ βήματι τοῦ ⸀ θεοῦ, γέγραπται γάρ· Ζῶ ἐγώ, λέγει κύριος, ὅτι ἐμοὶ κάμψει πᾶν γόνυ, καὶ ⸂ πᾶσα γλῶσσα ἐξομολογήσεται ⸃ τῷ θεῷ. ⸀ ἄρα ἕκαστος ἡμῶν περὶ ἑαυτοῦ λόγον ⸀ δώσει. Μηκέτι οὖν ἀλλήλους κρίνωμεν· ἀλλὰ τοῦτο κρίνατε μᾶλλον, τὸ μὴ τιθέναι πρόσκομμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ ἢ σκάνδαλον. οἶδα καὶ πέπεισμαι ἐν κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ ὅτι οὐδὲν κοινὸν δι’ ⸀ ἑαυτοῦ· εἰ μὴ τῷ λογιζομένῳ τι κοινὸν εἶναι, ἐκείνῳ κοινόν. εἰ ⸀ γὰρ διὰ βρῶμα ὁ ἀδελφός σου λυπεῖται, οὐκέτι κατὰ ἀγάπην περιπατεῖς. μὴ τῷ βρώματί σου ἐκεῖνον ἀπόλλυε ὑπὲρ οὗ Χριστὸς ἀπέθανεν.
14:10-15 As we will all stand before the Lord to be judged, again, let us not pass judgement on one another any longer , BUT decide to never put a stumbling block or hindrance in the way of a brother and, thereby, destroy the one for whom Christ died.
g So do not let what you regard as good be spoken of as evil. h For the kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking but i of righteousness and j peace and joy in the Holy Spirit. Whoever thus serves Christ is k acceptable to God and approved by men. So then let us l pursue what makes for peace and for m mutual upbuilding. n Do not, for the sake of food, destroy the work of God. o Everything is indeed clean, but p it is wrong for anyone to make another stumble by what he eats. q It is good not to eat meat or drink wine or do anything that causes your brother to stumble. 1 The faith that you have, keep between yourself and God. r Blessed is the one who has no reason to pass judgment on himself for what he approves. But whoever has doubts is condemned if he eats, because the eating is not from faith. For whatever does not proceed from faith is sin. 1
μὴ βλασφημείσθω οὖν ὑμῶν τὸ ἀγαθόν. οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ βρῶσις καὶ πόσις, ἀλλὰ δικαιοσύνη καὶ εἰρήνη καὶ χαρὰ ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ· ὁ γὰρ ἐν ⸀ τούτῳ δουλεύων τῷ Χριστῷ εὐάρεστος τῷ θεῷ καὶ δόκιμος τοῖς ἀνθρώποις. ἄρα οὖν τὰ τῆς εἰρήνης διώκωμεν καὶ τὰ τῆς οἰκοδομῆς τῆς εἰς ἀλλήλους. μὴ ἕνεκεν βρώματος κατάλυε τὸ ἔργον τοῦ θεοῦ. πάντα μὲν καθαρά, ἀλλὰ κακὸν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τῷ διὰ προσκόμματος ἐσθίοντι. καλὸν τὸ μὴ φαγεῖν κρέα μηδὲ πιεῖν οἶνον μηδὲ ἐν ᾧ ὁ ἀδελφός σου προσκόπτει ⸂ ἢ σκανδαλίζεται ἢ ἀσθενεῖ ⸃ · σὺ πίστιν ⸀ ἣν ἔχεις κατὰ σεαυτὸν ἔχε ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ. μακάριος ὁ μὴ κρίνων ἑαυτὸν ἐν ᾧ δοκιμάζει· ὁ δὲ διακρινόμενος ἐὰν φάγῃ κατακέκριται, ὅτι οὐκ ἐκ πίστεως· πᾶν δὲ ὃ οὐκ ἐκ πίστεως ἁμαρτία ⸀ ἐστίν.
14:16-23 For when you put a stumbling block or hindrance in the way of a brother you let the Kingdom of God and The Church of Christ be spoken of as evil.
s We who are strong t have an obligation to bear with the failings of the weak, and not to please ourselves. u Let each of us please his neighbor for his good, to build him up. For v Christ did not please himself, but as it is written, w “The reproaches of those who reproached you fell on me.” For x whatever was written in former days was written for our y instruction, that through endurance and through z the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. May the God of endurance and encouragement grant you a to live in such harmony with one another, in accord with Christ Jesus, that together you may with one voice glorify b the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Ὀφείλομεν δὲ ἡμεῖς οἱ δυνατοὶ τὰ ἀσθενήματα τῶν ἀδυνάτων βαστάζειν, καὶ μὴ ἑαυτοῖς ἀρέσκειν. ἕκαστος ἡμῶν τῷ πλησίον ἀρεσκέτω εἰς τὸ ἀγαθὸν πρὸς οἰκοδομήν· καὶ γὰρ ὁ Χριστὸς οὐχ ἑαυτῷ ἤρεσεν· ἀλλὰ καθὼς γέγραπται· Οἱ ὀνειδισμοὶ τῶν ὀνειδιζόντων σε ἐπέπεσαν ἐπ’ ἐμέ. ὅσα γὰρ προεγράφη, ⸀ εἰς τὴν ἡμετέραν διδασκαλίαν ⸀ ἐγράφη, ἵνα διὰ τῆς ὑπομονῆς καὶ διὰ τῆς παρακλήσεως τῶν γραφῶν τὴν ἐλπίδα ἔχωμεν. ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς ὑπομονῆς καὶ τῆς παρακλήσεως δῴη ὑμῖν τὸ αὐτὸ φρονεῖν ἐν ἀλλήλοις κατὰ ⸂ Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν ⸃ , ἵνα ὁμοθυμαδὸν ἐν ἑνὶ στόματι δοξάζητε τὸν θεὸν καὶ πατέρα τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.
15:1-6 To those with A Renewed Mind: As we follow the example of Christ we have an obligation to bear with the failings of one another, so rather than making our brother stumble - Let each of us please his neighbor for his good, to build him up. CONCLUDING BLESSING 1
Therefore welcome one another as Christ has welcomed you, for the glory of God. For I tell you that Christ c became a servant to the circumcised to show God’s truthfulness, in order d to confirm the promises given to the patriarchs, and in order e that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written, f “Therefore I will praise you among the Gentiles, and sing to your name.” And again it is said, g “Rejoice, O Gentiles, with his people.” And again, h “Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles, and let all the peoples extol him.” And again Isaiah says, i j “The root of Jesse will come, even he who arises to rule the Gentiles; k in him will the Gentiles hope.” May the God of hope fill you with all l joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope.
Διὸ προσλαμβάνεσθε ἀλλήλους, καθὼς καὶ ὁ Χριστὸς προσελάβετο ⸀ ὑμᾶς, εἰς δόξαν ⸀ τοῦ θεοῦ. λέγω ⸀ γὰρ ⸀ Χριστὸν διάκονον ⸀ γεγενῆσθαι περιτομῆς ὑπὲρ ἀληθείας θεοῦ, εἰς τὸ βεβαιῶσαι τὰς ἐπαγγελίας τῶν πατέρων, τὰ δὲ ἔθνη ὑπὲρ ἐλέους δοξάσαι τὸν θεόν· καθὼς γέγραπται· Διὰ τοῦτο ἐξομολογήσομαί σοι ἐν ἔθνεσι, καὶ τῷ ὀνοματί σου ψαλῶ. καὶ πάλιν λέγει· Εὐφράνθητε, ἔθνη, μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ. καὶ πάλιν· Αἰνεῖτε, ⸂ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, τὸν κύριον ⸃ , καὶ ⸀ ἐπαινεσάτωσαν αὐτὸν πάντες οἱ λαοί. καὶ πάλιν Ἠσαΐας λέγει· Ἔσται ἡ ῥίζα τοῦ Ἰεσσαί, καὶ ὁ ἀνιστάμενος ἄρχειν ἐθνῶν· ἐπ’ αὐτῷ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν. ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς ἐλπίδος πληρώσαι ὑμᾶς πάσης χαρᾶς καὶ εἰρήνης ἐν τῷ πιστεύειν, εἰς τὸ περισσεύειν ὑμᾶς ἐν τῇ ἐλπίδι ἐν δυνάμει πνεύματος ἁγίου.
15:7-13 Welcome one another as Christ welcomed you, strong and weak, Jew and Gentile you each have hope because Christ became a servant . CONCLUDING BLESSING 2
m I myself am satisfied about you, my brothers, 1 that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with n all knowledge and able to instruct one another. But on some points I have written to you very boldly by way of reminder, o because of the grace given me by God to be p a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles q in the priestly service of the gospel of God, so that r the offering of the Gentiles may be acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. In Christ Jesus, then, I have s reason to be proud of t my work for God. For I will not venture to speak of anything except u what Christ has accomplished through me v to bring the Gentiles to obedience—by word and deed, w by the power of signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God—so that x from Jerusalem and all the way around y to Illyricum I have fulfilled the ministry of the gospel of Christ; and thus I make it my ambition to preach the gospel, not where Christ has already been named, z lest I build on someone else’s foundation, but as it is written, a “Those who have never been told of him will see, and those who have never heard will understand.”
Πέπεισμαι δέ, ἀδελφοί μου, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐγὼ περὶ ὑμῶν, ὅτι καὶ αὐτοὶ μεστοί ἐστε ἀγαθωσύνης, πεπληρωμένοι ⸀ πάσης γνώσεως, δυνάμενοι καὶ ⸀ ἀλλήλους νουθετεῖν. ⸀ τολμηρότερον δὲ ἔγραψα ⸀ ὑμῖν ἀπὸ μέρους, ὡς ἐπαναμιμνῄσκων ὑμᾶς, διὰ τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι ⸀ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ εἰς τὸ εἶναί με λειτουργὸν ⸂ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ ⸃ εἰς τὰ ἔθνη, ἱερουργοῦντα τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα γένηται ἡ προσφορὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν εὐπρόσδεκτος, ἡγιασμένη ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ. ἔχω οὖν ⸀ τὴν καύχησιν ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τὰ πρὸς τὸν θεόν· οὐ γὰρ τολμήσω ⸂ τι λαλεῖν ⸃ ὧν οὐ κατειργάσατο Χριστὸς δι’ ἐμοῦ εἰς ὑπακοὴν ἐθνῶν, λόγῳ καὶ ἔργῳ, ἐν δυνάμει σημείων καὶ τεράτων, ἐν δυνάμει ⸀ πνεύματος· ὥστε με ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ κύκλῳ μέχρι τοῦ Ἰλλυρικοῦ πεπληρωκέναι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ Χριστοῦ, οὕτως δὲ ⸀ φιλοτιμούμενον εὐαγγελίζεσθαι οὐχ ὅπου ὠνομάσθη Χριστός, ἵνα μὴ ἐπ’ ἀλλότριον θεμέλιον οἰκοδομῶ, ἀλλὰ καθὼς γέγραπται· ⸂ Οἷς οὐκ ἀνηγγέλη περὶ αὐτοῦ ὄψονται ⸃ , καὶ οἳ οὐκ ἀκηκόασιν συνήσουσιν.
15:14-21 I, who have never visited you and satisfied that you all are full of goodness, filled all knowledge and able to instruct one another, have have written boldly on some points by way of reminder. I do this because of the grace given me by God to be a minister to the Gentiles, so that Jew and Gentile, strong and weak might be joined together in a living sacrifice to God that is (12:1 holy and acceptable/15:16 acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit).
This is the reason why b I have so often been hindered from coming to you. But now, since I no longer have any room for work in these regions, and c since I have longed for many years to come to you, I hope to see you in passing as I go d to Spain, and e to be helped on my journey there by you, once I have enjoyed your company for a while. At present, however, f I am going to Jerusalem bringing aid to the saints. For g Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to make some contribution for the poor among the saints at Jerusalem. For they were pleased to do it, and indeed h they owe it to them. For if the Gentiles have come to share in their spiritual blessings, they ought also to be of service to them in material blessings. When therefore I have completed this and have delivered to them what has been collected, 1 I will leave i for Spain by way of you. I know that when I come to you I will come in the fullness of the blessing 1 of Christ.
Διὸ καὶ ἐνεκοπτόμην τὰ πολλὰ τοῦ ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς· νυνὶ δὲ μηκέτι τόπον ἔχων ἐν τοῖς κλίμασι τούτοις, ἐπιποθίαν δὲ ἔχων τοῦ ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἀπὸ ⸀ ἱκανῶν ἐτῶν, ὡς ⸀ ἂν πορεύωμαι εἰς τὴν ⸀ Σπανίαν, ἐλπίζω γὰρ διαπορευόμενος θεάσασθαι ὑμᾶς καὶ ὑφ’ ὑμῶν προπεμφθῆναι ἐκεῖ ἐὰν ὑμῶν πρῶτον ἀπὸ μέρους ἐμπλησθῶ— νυνὶ δὲ πορεύομαι εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴμ διακονῶν τοῖς ἁγίοις. εὐδόκησαν γὰρ Μακεδονία καὶ Ἀχαΐα κοινωνίαν τινὰ ποιήσασθαι εἰς τοὺς πτωχοὺς τῶν ἁγίων τῶν ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ. εὐδόκησαν γάρ, καὶ ὀφειλέται ⸂ εἰσὶν αὐτῶν ⸃ · εἰ γὰρ τοῖς πνευματικοῖς αὐτῶν ἐκοινώνησαν τὰ ἔθνη, ὀφείλουσιν καὶ ἐν τοῖς σαρκικοῖς λειτουργῆσαι αὐτοῖς. τοῦτο οὖν ἐπιτελέσας, καὶ σφραγισάμενος αὐτοῖς τὸν καρπὸν τοῦτον, ἀπελεύσομαι δι’ ὑμῶν ⸀ εἰς Σπανίαν· οἶδα δὲ ὅτι ἐρχόμενος πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐν πληρώματι ⸀ εὐλογίας Χριστοῦ ἐλεύσομαι.
15:22-29 In the fullness of the blessing of Christ I plan to visit you and continue on to Spain after traveling to Jerusalem with a gift from the (Gentile) Churches in Macedonia and Achaia for the poor among the (Jewish) saints there. The Gentiles have come to share in their spiritual blessings.
I appeal to you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by j the love of the Spirit, k to strive together with me in your prayers to God on my behalf, l that I may be delivered from the unbelievers in Judea, and that m my service for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints, so that by God’s will I may come to you with joy and n be refreshed in your company. May o the God of peace be with you all. Amen.
Παρακαλῶ δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ διὰ τῆς ἀγάπης τοῦ πνεύματος συναγωνίσασθαί μοι ἐν ταῖς προσευχαῖς ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ πρὸς τὸν θεόν, ἵνα ῥυσθῶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀπειθούντων ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ ⸀ καὶ ἡ διακονία μου ἡ εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴμ εὐπρόσδεκτος ⸂ τοῖς ἁγίοις γένηται ⸃ , ἵνα ἐν χαρᾷ ⸀ ἐλθὼν πρὸς ὑμᾶς διὰ θελήματος ⸀ θεοῦ συναναπαύσωμαι ὑμῖν. ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς εἰρήνης μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν· ἀμήν.
15:30-33 I appeal to you for prayer. CONCLUDING BLESSING 3
Summary Notes
Outline: Ch 1-8 The Righteousness of God Ch 9-11 The Jews as a seeming contradiction to the Righteousness of God concluding with a proclamation of God's mercy to Jew and Gentile. Ch 12-15 An exposition on how Jew and Gentile are to be the Body of Christ 12:1 A call to Body Unity 12:2 A call to a revolutionary understanding of our togetherness 12:3-13:14 Positive imperatives to individuals ending with a call to love one another by putting on Christ 14:1-15:6 A description of the tensions that naturally occur when saints with differing heritage and experience make the effort to follow God's call to unity, and the imperatives that those tensions necessitate 15:7-13 A fitting conclusion based on the hope which each group enjoys based on the Grace of God 15:14-21 Paul explains and defends the tone of his exhortation to those he has never visited 15:22-29 Paul outlines his plans to visit Rome on his way to Spain after visiting Jerusalem with a gift from the saints of Gentile Asia Minor to the poor saints of Israel. 15:30-33 Paul ask for their prayers for his trip to Jerusalem. Exegesis We must always challenge ourselves to seek to understand to whom these letters were written and to try to understand what the original hearers would have understood and then to apply that to ourselves today. The factors which can be considered in such an effort are numerous but one aspect of that is often overlooked; that is, that these scriptures were read aloud to a congregation of believers who were very sensitive to their togetherness. In that setting they would be very conscious of the interplay between the singular and plural formations in the truths that were falling on their ears as they sat shoulder to shoulder. This forces me to the conclusion that Ch12-15 are an Inference based on Paul's discussion of Israel in Ch 9-11. How do two very different peoples called into one hope live together. First, the high calling is set (12:1). Be ONE sacrifice to God. Second, the Manner in which that will be accomplished is by a joint revolution of thinking that produces ONE Mind (12:2). Third, the teaching on what that will look like (12:3ff). Within this extended teaching the first section (12:3-13:14) addresses individuals and how they should think and act toward one another. This section ends with a call to love which can only be accomplished by 'putting on Christ' in light of the times. The character of the admonitions following (14:1-15:6) seem to go right to the issue of their differences and the tensions they create in the pursuit of their high calling to unity. In this section two groups are mentioned, the strong and the weak. To the individuals is left the responsibility to self identify as to their membership. This dichotomy could be seen as a correlating to the divide of Jew and Gentile, even if that correlation and the distinction would continue to decrease with time. Exhortation We must press on to explore the potentiality of unity in the Body of Christ. We must open ourselves to live in the Body of Christ in such a way that God can revolutionize our corporate understanding and so transform that very body and the world we are called to serve. Notes: I was forced to abandon my idea of 13:8-14 as a ground for the entire passage but I did find it a fitting conclusion for the first section. I toyed with the idea that the 3 blessings in Ch 15 were marking a relationship beyond Ch 12-15 but I had to abandon that thought as well. Rather, I found them as fitting exclamation marks on the three sections of Paul's discourse in 12-15. 1 Paul instruction, 2 Paul's explanation for his writing, & 3 Paul relating his plans and asking for prayer on his behalf. I didn't reduce my summary to the summaries of the various lesson sections only, seeking to preserve a bit more of the extended argument as it fit my understanding of the overall Arc. As I have mentioned it will be nice to have the ability to have multiple Mine columns.
Disclaimer: The opinions and conclusions expressed on this page are those of the author and may or may not accord with the positions of Biblearc or Bethlehem College & Seminary.