The sin in 12a and 12b appears to be speaking of an event that happened with Adam (in the book of Genesis), but when the scripture speaks of all death spreading to all men, as a result of all men having sinned, is the scripture speaking of us all "having sinned" in Adam, or did each individual man commit an act of sin that justly results in death spreading to that man, that sin not have been after the same manner as Adam's sin. In 13b and 14a - what is the significance of sin not being counted if death is still reigning? In a practical way...would that make things better or worse, if you did not have a consciousness of sin, but were still suffering the effects of death in your life? The passage in 15a explains how the free gift of the second Adam is not like the trespass of the first Adam...but what is the comparison (what are we supposed to get from the scripture calling both of them Adam)? Is the scripture arguing that grace entered through the obedience of one man Christ (which we are not directly responsible for but can reap the benefits of) the same way the sin entered through the disobedience of one man, the first Adam (which we were not directly responsible for, but we can reap the consequences of)....is this what it means when the scripture states in 14b and 14a that even those whose transgression was not like Adam's, yet death reigned? Even though I wrestle with some of the details of this text, I know that those whom God has opened their eyes to the abounding grace that is only available through Jesus Christ...are forever free from the consequences of the law of sin and death!
Main point summary
The free gift by grace of Jesus Christ is not like the trespass of sin through Adam.
Therefore, just as t sin came into the world through one man,
Thus, sin entered the world through the transgression of one man,
and u death through sin,
and death entering the world as a consequence of sin
and v so death spread to all men 1
and so death spread to all men as a consequence
because w all sinned—
because all men sinned
for sin indeed was in the world before the law was given,
although the law named and recognized sin for what it was...sin was still existed in the world before the law spelled out what it was
but x sin is not counted where there is no law.
however the full judgment or consequence of sin is not realized where the law does not frame it
Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses,
yet even though sin's full effect was not realized before the law...death, which was a consequence of sin entering, still exercised it's dominating effects in the generations that lived before the law came.
even over those whose sinning was not y like the transgression of Adam,
even though death came into the world and reigned through Adam's sin, death still reigned as a consequence of sin...even over those so did not sin in the same manner that Adam did.
z who was a type of a the one who was to come.
This mystery and seeming inconsistency in the natural order of things, which occurred in and through Adam, is a type of, and is pointing to the second Adam who is coming.
But the free gift is not like the trespass.
And although a picture of the trespass of the first Adam is used to help you understand the concept behind the free gift of the second Adam...the free gift is far superior in quality than the inherent effects of the trespass, that the two should not even be compared.
For if many died through one man’s trespass,
So if many suffered the effects of the consequence of death through the act of one man opening the door
much more have the grace of God
then the grace of God must be far greater in quantity and quality
and the free gift by the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for b many.
and that one man who has opened the door of that free grace, who is Jesus Christ, has caused it to overflow in the lives of many.