Main point summary
God used prophets to communicate to us earlier, but now he reveals himself to us through a superior, means —his Son, who is God himself.
Long ago, at many times and a in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets,
It was God who, ages ago, spoke to our ancestors through his prophets —multiple times and through multiple means,
Πολυμερῶς καὶ πολυτρόπως πάλαι ὁ θεὸς λαλήσας τοῖς πατράσιν ἐν τοῖς προφήταις
God, after He a spoke long ago to the fathers in b the prophets in many portions and c in many ways,
but b in these last days c he has spoken to us by d his Son,
Yet , at the end of these days, he has spoken to us through one means —his Son
ἐπʼ ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων ἐλάλησεν ἡμῖν ἐν υἱῷ, ὃν ἔθηκεν κληρονόμον πάντων, διʼ οὗ καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς αἰῶνας•
1 a in these last days b has spoken to us 2 in c His Son, whom He appointed d heir of all things, e through whom also He made the 3 f world.
whom he appointed e the heir of all things,
who was (1) appointed by God to be heir of all things,
f through whom also he created g the world.
and (2) through whom God created the universe in time [ in the beginning ].
He is the radiance of the glory of God
And he is (3) the perfect reflection of the glory of God
ὃς ὢν ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δόξης καὶ χαρακτὴρ τῆς ὑποστάσεως αὐτοῦ, φέρων τε τὰ πάντα τῷ ῥήματι τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ, καθαρισμὸν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ποιησάμενος ἐκάθισεν ἐν δεξιᾷ τῆς μεγαλωσύνης ἐν ὑψηλοῖς,
1 And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact a representation of His nature, and 2 b upholds all things by the word of His power. When He had made c purification of sins, He d sat down at the right hand of the e Majesty on high,
and h the exact imprint of his nature,
and (4) the perfect image of God's very being (substance?),
and he upholds the universe by the word of his power.
and (5) he ( still) sustains the entire universe by his powerful word.
i After making purification for sins,
and (6) he provided for the purification of sins,
j he sat down
after which he sat down
k at the right hand of the Majesty on high,
at the right hand of God himself —the Majesty on high,
having become as much superior to angels
becoming, therefore, (7) much more superior to angels.
τοσούτῳ κρείττων γενόμενος τῶν ἀγγέλων ὅσῳ διαφορώτερον παρʼ αὐτοὺς κεκληρονόμηκεν ὄνομα.
having become as much better than the angels, as He has inherited a more excellent a name than they.
as the name l he has inherited is more excellent than theirs.
just like the name that he has inherited is far more excellent than that of angels.
For to which of the angels did God ever say,
For God did not ever say to any angel:
Τίνι γὰρ εἶπέν ποτε τῶν ἀγγέλων• υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε; καὶ πάλιν• ἐγὼ ἔσομαι αὐτῷ εἰς πατέρα, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔσται μοι εἰς υἱόν;
For to which of the angels did He ever say, “ a You are My Son , Today I have begotten You ”? And again, “ b I will be a Father to Him And He shall be a Son to Me ”?
m “You are my Son,
"You are my Son,
today I have begotten you”?
that is , I have begotten you.
Or again, n “I will be to him a father,
nor did he say (to any angel), "I will be a Father to him
and he shall be to me a son”?
and he will be a Son to me."
And again, when he brings o the firstborn into the world,
But about the firstborn he says, when he brings him into the world,
ὅταν δὲ πάλιν εἰσαγάγῃ τὸν πρωτότοκον εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην, λέγει• καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ.
And 1 when He again a brings the firstborn into 2 b the world, He says, “ c And let all the angels of God worship Him .”
he says, p “Let all God’s angels worship him.”
"Let all the heavenly beings worship him!"
Of the angels he says,
And about the angels, he says this:
καὶ πρὸς μὲν τοὺς ἀγγέλους λέγει• ὁ ποιῶν τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ πνεύματα καὶ τοὺς λειτουργοὺς αὐτοῦ πυρὸς φλόγα,
And of the angels He says, “ a Who makes His angels winds , And His ministers a flame of fire .”
q “He makes his angels winds,
"His angels are by nature, spirits
and his ministers a flame of fire.”
and these servants are God's means of judgment (?)
But of the Son he says,
But about the Son , he says:
πρὸς δὲ τὸν υἱόν• ὁ θρόνος σου ὁ θεὸς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος, καὶ ἡ ῥάβδος τῆς εὐθύτητος ῥάβδος τῆς βασιλείας σου.
But of the Son He says, “ a Your throne , O God , is forever and ever , And the righteous scepter is the scepter of 1 His kingdom .
r “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever,
"O God, your throne is eternal, through the ages
the scepter of uprightness is the scepter of your kingdom.
and righteousness is the symbol and rod of your kingdom,
You have loved righteousness
since you have loved righteousness
ἠγάπησας δικαιοσύνην καὶ ἐμίσησας ἀνομίαν• διὰ τοῦτο ἔχρισέν σε ὁ θεὸς ὁ θεός σου ἔλαιον ἀγαλλιάσεως παρὰ τοὺς μετόχους σου.
“ a You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness ; b Therefore God , Your God , has c anointed You With the oil of gladness above Your companions .”
and hated wickedness;
but hated wickedness.
therefore God, your God, s has anointed you with t the oil of gladness
Therefore Oh God, your God has poured gladness upon you (in celebration and exaltation)
beyond your companions.”
more than upon those who share with you.
And, u “You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning,
And , "You, Oh Lord, built the foundations of the earth in the beginning
καί• σὺ κατʼ ἀρχάς, κύριε, τὴν γῆν ἐθεμελίωσας, καὶ ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν σού εἰσιν οἱ οὐρανοί•
And, “ a You , Lord , in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth , And the heavens are the works of Your hands ;
and the heavens are the work of your hands;
and your hands crafted the heavens;
they will perish,
This handiwork, i.e. the earth and heavens will die
αὐτοὶ ἀπολοῦνται, σὺ δὲ διαμένεις, καὶ πάντες ὡς ἱμάτιον παλαιωθήσονται,
a They will perish , but You remain ; b And they all will become old like a garment ,
but you remain;
but you remain now and will always remain;
they will all wear out like a garment,
in other words, your handiwork will wear out like any old garment,
like a robe you will roll them up,
and like a robe can be rolled up, you will simply roll your handiwork up -it is temporary,
καὶ ὡσεὶ περιβόλαιον ἑλίξεις αὐτούς, ὡς ἱμάτιον καὶ ἀλλαγήσονται• σὺ δὲ ὁ αὐτὸς εἶ καὶ τὰ ἔτη σου οὐκ ἐκλείψουσιν.
a And like a mantle You will roll them up ; Like a garment they will also be changed . But You are b the same , And Your years will not come to an end .”
like a garment they will be changed. 1
and like clothes, your handiwork can be changed.
But you are v the same,
But , unlike your handiwork , you never changed - you are the same,
and your years will have no end.”
and unlike your handiwork, your life will be eternal, without end.
And to which of the angels has he ever said,
And to no angel at any point of time has God said,
πρὸς τίνα δὲ τῶν ἀγγέλων εἴρηκέν ποτε• κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου, ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν σου;
But to which of the angels has He ever said, “ a Sit at My right hand , b Until I make Your enemies A footstool for Your feet ”?
w “Sit at my right hand
"Sit at my right hand
x until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet”?
until I vindicate you, making your enemies a footstool for your feet."
Are they not all ministering spirits
Unlike the Son, who is a ruler seated, the angels are serving spirits ,
οὐχὶ πάντες εἰσὶν λειτουργικὰ πνεύματα εἰς διακονίαν ἀποστελλόμενα διὰ τοὺς μέλλοντας κληρονομεῖν σωτηρίαν;
Are they not all a ministering spirits, sent out to render service for the sake of those who will b inherit c salvation?
y sent out to serve for the sake of those who are to z inherit salvation?
who are not seated, but are sent out in order to serve those who inherit salvation.
Progression only because of the change of tense, indicative not of who Jesus was and is, but what he did and is doing.
The concessive straightaway implies the "better" revelation, while not dismissing the prophetic revelations of the past.
"these last days" seems to imply a sense of fulfilment.
Who Jesus is, and what his work was.
Cf. Romans 11:36; Colossians 1:16-17
χαρακτὴρ cf. Colossians 1:15-19
Cf. Psalm 110:1
Other reasons for Inference: Cf. Philippians 2:8-9 Judging by the language, it could also be Action-Result
τοὺς αἰῶνας aeons used, instead of kosmos
ὑποστάσεως Cf. Hebrews 11:1 (substance/assurance)
Similar to Hebrews 1:2 - the Son being appointed heir of all things.
"Name" refers to the tile of the 'Son', seen in Hebrews 1:2,5 While the angels were referred to as 'sons of God' (Genesis 6:2, Job 1:6, Psalm 29:1), none of them had this title and inheritance and relationship with God, the Father
Psalm 2 Regarded a Messianic Psalm
Nathan's word's reference to Solomon and evidently more than just him.
Cf. Deuteronomy 32:39-43. While Moses, in his song, is referring to YHWH, the writer to the Hebrews is inspired to see this reference to the Christ and his incarnation. Cf. Luke 2:13-14.
Today cannot mean the Son had a beginning in time, as it would contradict Hebrews 1:2-3, violating his God-nature. Today could refer to the incarnation, or more likely, his exaltation, when he became much superior to angels, cf. Philippians 2:8-9, Psalm 89:27. See also Acts 13:30-39 Nonetheless, 5c is not the main clause, which is 5b "You are my Son". Instead, 5c supports 5b in explaining the reality that the son is "begotten".
Jesus was not only the Son of God, but the son of David, fulfilling the Davidic Covenant. See also Psalm 2:7-8.
Note the constant tie-ups with the Father. The idea of the Son without the Father is unthinkable, yet the Son is evidently extremely close to the Father.
πρωτότοκον cf. Romans 8:29; Psalm 89:27 (LXX)
Refers less to chronology and more to superiority and 'rights', especially to heir-ship.
The Son is worthy of worship, which (especially to a Hebrew) was only due to God. More than that, the writer is talking about angels worshiping the Son, not just humans, sharply contrasting what he was saying earlier about what God did not say about/to angels.
Probably referring to their spiritual nature, invisibility, etc.
This is the key comparison - that the angels are servants, unlike the Son who is an heir.
In the context of the Psalm, these clauses could be rendered as 'Series', but here in Hebrews, the aim is to display the Son, by contrast, for who he really is - more superior than angels.
Interesting translation from Hebrew to LXX of Psalm 104:4. RT France: ...two ambiguous words suggested a different meaning: Hebrew malʾak and Greek angelos (GK 34) both have the double meaning “messenger” or “angel,” and Hebrew rûah and Greek pneuma (GK 4460) both mean either “wind” or “spirit”; and in Greek religious usage the meanings “angel” and “spirit” are far more common. On this basis, the LXX version, used by Hebrews, has apparently reversed the syntax, so that “angels” and “servants” are understood as the object and “spirits” (so, rightly, TNIV) and “flames of fire” as the complement.
Psalm 45 Generally talks about the celebration of the marriage of the king. The quotation is from Psalm 45:6-7.
While there is definitely an inference in 9c-d, I sense 8b-c as an inference rooted in 9a-b: Christ's righteousness evidenced and worked out was the basis for his eternal reign and exaltation, again based out of Philippians 2:5-11 and also the tenses seen in 9a-b - you' have loved/hated', implying a past display of this love for righteousness and hatred of wickedness.
μετόχους partakers, partners, sharers, companions. Cf. Hebrews 3:14. Probably includes us as 'fellow heirs', with Christ being the firstborn. Cf. Romans 8:29
While we share Jesus' humanity, Jesus still rules over us as 'God'. He is far above us.
The Son is eternal, creating the world in the beginning, without change or end, unlike angels or any other created work.
Unlike the servant-angels, the Son is a ruler, having an eternal, righteous throne, and exalted beyond his fellow brothers (sharers).
The Son is worthy of worship
The Son is really "the" Son, a relational title given to no angel.
The Son is superior to the angels and prophets. It is this superior Son who stoops to reveal God to us!
Cf. 2 Peter 3:10-12
Psalm 110. This is quoted by Jesus of himself as well! Cf. Matthew 22:41-46. Cf. Hebrews 1:3
Cf. Hebrews 1:7
This salvation was provided for by the Son, cf. v3. It is now available to inherit.
The Son, unlike angels, sits at God's right hand, awaiting vindication and complete rule.