Paul in Corinth 18 1 After this Paul 1 left Athens and went to Corinth. 2 And he found a Jew named v Aquila, a native of Pontus, recently come from Italy with his wife v Priscilla, because w Claudius had commanded all the Jews to leave Rome. And he went to see them, 3 and x because he was of the same trade he stayed with them and worked, for they were tentmakers by trade. 4 And y he reasoned in the synagogue y every Sabbath, and tried to persuade Jews and Greeks. 5 z When Silas and Timothy arrived from Macedonia, Paul a was occupied with the word, b testifying to the Jews that the Christ was c Jesus. 6 And when they opposed and reviled him, d he shook out his garments and said to them, e “Your blood be on your own heads! f I am innocent. g From now on I will go to the Gentiles.” 7 And he left there and went to the house of a man named Titius h Justus, i a worshiper of God. His house was next door to the synagogue. 8 j Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, believed in the Lord, together k with his entire household. And many of the Corinthians hearing Paul believed and were baptized. 9 And the Lord said to Paul l one night in m a vision, n “Do not be afraid, but go on speaking and do not be silent, 10 n for I am with you, and o no one will attack you to harm you, for p I have many in this city who are my people.” 11 And he stayed a year and six months, teaching the word of God among them. 12 But when Gallio was q proconsul of Achaia, r the Jews 1 made a united attack on Paul and s brought him before the tribunal, 13 saying, “This man is persuading people to worship God contrary to t the law.” 14 But when Paul was about to open his mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, “If it were a matter of wrongdoing or vicious u crime, O Jews, I would have reason to accept your complaint. 15 But v since it is a matter of questions about words and names and w your own law, see to it yourselves. I refuse to be a judge of these things.” 16 And he drove them from the tribunal. 17 And they all seized Sosthenes, the ruler of the synagogue, and beat him in front of the tribunal. But Gallio paid no attention to any of this. Paul Returns to Antioch 18 After this, Paul stayed many days longer and then took leave of x the brothers 1 and set sail for Syria, and with him y Priscilla and Aquila. At z Cenchreae a he had cut his hair, for he was under a vow. 19 And they came to b Ephesus, and he left them there, but c he himself went into the synagogue and reasoned with the Jews. 20 When they asked him to stay for a longer period, he declined. 21 But on taking leave of them he said, “I will return to you d if God wills,” and he set sail from Ephesus. 22 When he had landed at Caesarea, he e went up and greeted the church, and then went down to Antioch. 23 After spending some time there, he departed and f went from one place to the next through the region of Galatia and Phrygia, g strengthening all the disciples.
18 1 Μετὰ ταῦτα χωρισθεὶς ἐκ τῶν Ἀθηνῶν ἦλθεν εἰς Κόρινθον. 2 καὶ εὑρών τινα Ἰουδαῖον ὀνόματι Ἀκύλαν, Ποντικὸν τῷ γένει προσφάτως ἐληλυθότα ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰταλίας καὶ Πρίσκιλλαν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ, διὰ τὸ διατεταχέναι Κλαύδιον χωρίζεσθαι πάντας τοὺς Ἰουδαίους ἀπὸ τῆς Ῥώμης, προσῆλθεν αὐτοῖς 3 καὶ διὰ τὸ ὁμότεχνον εἶναι ἔμενεν παρʼ αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἠργάζετο• ἦσαν γὰρ σκηνοποιοὶ τῇ τέχνῃ. 4 διελέγετο δὲ ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ κατὰ πᾶν σάββατον ἔπειθέν τε Ἰουδαίους καὶ Ἕλληνας. 5 Ὡς δὲ κατῆλθον ἀπὸ τῆς Μακεδονίας ὅ τε Σιλᾶς καὶ ὁ Τιμόθεος, συνείχετο τῷ λόγῳ ὁ Παῦλος διαμαρτυρόμενος τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις εἶναι τὸν χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν. 6 ἀντιτασσομένων δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ βλασφημούντων ἐκτιναξάμενος τὰ ἱμάτια εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς• τὸ αἷμα ὑμῶν ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν ὑμῶν• καθαρὸς ἐγὼ ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν εἰς τὰ ἔθνη πορεύσομαι. 7 καὶ μεταβὰς ἐκεῖθεν εἰσῆλθεν εἰς οἰκίαν τινὸς ὀνόματι Τιτίου Ἰούστου σεβομένου τὸν θεόν, οὗ ἡ οἰκία ἦν συνομοροῦσα τῇ συναγωγῇ. 8 Κρίσπος δὲ ὁ ἀρχισυνάγωγος ἐπίστευσεν τῷ κυρίῳ σὺν ὅλῳ τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ, καὶ πολλοὶ τῶν Κορινθίων ἀκούοντες ἐπίστευον καὶ ἐβαπτίζοντο. 9 Εἶπεν δὲ ὁ κύριος ἐν νυκτὶ διʼ ὁράματος τῷ Παύλῳ• μὴ φοβοῦ, ἀλλὰ λάλει καὶ μὴ σιωπήσῃς, 10 διότι ἐγώ εἰμι μετὰ σοῦ καὶ οὐδεὶς ἐπιθήσεταί σοι τοῦ κακῶσαί σε, διότι λαός ἐστίν μοι πολὺς ἐν τῇ πόλει ταύτῃ. 11 Ἐκάθισεν δὲ ἐνιαυτὸν καὶ μῆνας ἓξ διδάσκων ἐν αὐτοῖς τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ. 12 Γαλλίωνος δὲ ἀνθυπάτου ὄντος τῆς Ἀχαΐας κατεπέστησαν ὁμοθυμαδὸν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι τῷ Παύλῳ καὶ ἤγαγον αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸ βῆμα 13 λέγοντες ὅτι παρὰ τὸν νόμον ἀναπείθει οὗτος τοὺς ἀνθρώπους σέβεσθαι τὸν θεόν. 14 μέλλοντος δὲ τοῦ Παύλου ἀνοίγειν τὸ στόμα εἶπεν ὁ Γαλλίων πρὸς τοὺς Ἰουδαίους• εἰ μὲν ἦν ἀδίκημά τι ἢ ῥᾳδιούργημα πονηρόν, ὦ Ἰουδαῖοι, κατὰ λόγον ἂν ἀνεσχόμην ὑμῶν, 15 εἰ δὲ ζητήματά ἐστιν περὶ λόγου καὶ ὀνομάτων καὶ νόμου τοῦ καθʼ ὑμᾶς, ὄψεσθε αὐτοί• κριτὴς ἐγὼ τούτων οὐ βούλομαι εἶναι. 16 καὶ ἀπήλασεν αὐτοὺς ἀπὸ τοῦ βήματος. 17 ἐπιλαβόμενοι δὲ πάντες Σωσθένην τὸν ἀρχισυνάγωγον ἔτυπτον ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ βήματος• καὶ οὐδὲν τούτων τῷ Γαλλίωνι ἔμελεν. 18 Ὁ δὲ Παῦλος ἔτι προσμείνας ἡμέρας ἱκανὰς τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς ἀποταξάμενος ἐξέπλει εἰς τὴν Συρίαν, καὶ σὺν αὐτῷ Πρίσκιλλα καὶ Ἀκύλας, κειράμενος ἐν Κεγχρεαῖς τὴν κεφαλήν, εἶχεν γὰρ εὐχήν. 19 κατήντησαν δὲ εἰς Ἔφεσον κακείνους κατέλιπεν αὐτοῦ, αὐτὸς δὲ εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν διελέξατο τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις. 20 ἐρωτώντων δὲ αὐτῶν ἐπὶ πλείονα χρόνον μεῖναι οὐκ ἐπένευσεν, 21 ἀλλʼ ἀποταξάμενος καὶ εἰπών• πάλιν ἀνακάμψω πρὸς ὑμᾶς τοῦ θεοῦ θέλοντος, ἀνήχθη ἀπὸ τῆς Ἐφέσου, 22 καὶ κατελθὼν εἰς Καισάρειαν, ἀναβὰς καὶ ἀσπασάμενος τὴν ἐκκλησίαν κατέβη εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν. 23 Καὶ ποιήσας χρόνον τινὰ ἐξῆλθεν διερχόμενος καθεξῆς τὴν Γαλατικὴν χώραν καὶ Φρυγίαν, ἐπιστηρίζων πάντας τοὺς μαθητάς.
By the grace of Jesus, Paul plants the gospel in Corinth and completes his second missionary journey 'Grace has brought me safe thus far, and grace will lead me home' 1-11 In the thick of opposition, the Lord Jesus gives encouragement and fru it Corinth background. wickedness of Corinth. Encouragement for today. Great commercial centre. Canal, and the hauling across of goods before that. Sea-farers etc; contributed both to wealth and to immorality (coming and going, far from home). Proud people. Self-promoting. Behind the city, 2,000 feet above sea level on a flat rock was the temple of Venus/Aphrodite, goddess of love. 1,000 female slaves served her, and worked streets as prostitutes by night. korinthiazomai = to practise immorality korinthiastes = harlot Priscilla, Aquila, and Claudius background. Aquila and Priscilla. What a couple! Kicked out of Italy for being Jewish/Christian (Suetonius, references Claudius, since the Jews were making disturbances about Chrestus / ?Christ). Later they go to Ephesus, and the church meets in their house. Tentmaker/leather handler. Worked with hands. Rabbis had to learn a trade - something I fully uphold for pastors [cf all those who can't leave apostate situations due to no way out]. v5 on the ropes. v5 ESV has, 'Paul was occupied'. Perhaps more literally there it's the sense of 'hard pressed'. Or even of being on the ropes. This was a tough opposition, who he in due course turns away from to preach to the Gentiles. Paul part of a team. Gets encouragement and friendship. cf 1 Thessalonians 3.6 to v5. v6-8 shake off dust. Amazing conversion of synagogue ruler. Shaking dust off feet - how we apply this today. cf Ezekiel 33.1ff v9-10 take courage. My grace sufficient for you. My people. Where God calls/guides, he provides/sustains. He doesn't carry so far, and then drop you. We need to keep learning this. v10 'many people in this city'. Laos, same word for 'people' of Israel in OT. The church is the same 'people'; Jew and Gentile in Jesus. Jesus is the true Israel. If you are in him by faith, you are in his people Israel, regardless of blood descent. 12-17 Though accused by the Jews, the Roman authorities have no issue with Paul Gallio. Gallio - younger brother of Seneca (Stoic, and tutor to young Nero). Licita, etc. v13 they were trying to make out he was promoting a religio illicita. But he dismisses it as a jewish law issue, over which he has no jurisdiction (or seeming interest). Gallio refusing to rule on it is significant; Christianity was 'covered' - at this stage - by the status of Judaism, as a religio licita, even if the Jews didn't see it that way. Later, it became recognised as a separate thing and persecuted. And then, under Constantine, made legal etc. Sosthenes, who had by now succeeded Crispus (cf 1 Corinthians 1.1ff ) 18-23 Paul takes a Nazirite vow and completes his second missionary journey Why the vow? Thankfulness, petition, both. Cenchreae, port of Corinth. Vow - Nazirite (cf Numbers 6.1ff ). Abstinence from drinking wine, and letting hair grow. At the end, cut hair and burn it along with other sacrifices as a symbol of self-offering to God. If the vow was completed away from Jerusalem, the hair could still be brought there to be burned. Usually the vows were made in thankfulness (eg for his safekeeping), or as a petition for safekeeping (which would be understandable too). Maybe to conciliate Jewish leaders as he heads to Jerusalem - but the text doesn't say this. Surely it's that, the law is his friend not his enemy. Having been freed from justification under the law, his conscience was free to take part in practices which were ceremonial or cultural. An aspect of the 'law of Christ'. Note relation to law. Perhaps Paul was really quite low during this episode; on the ropes, after Athens and before that Berea. The Lord's encouragement was just what he needed. And he makes the beautiful vow as a consequence and expression of total consecration. Gets to Ephesus - so now he is in Asia, where he previously had been prevented from entering. Perhaps his haste to leave was to reach Jerusalem for the passover, but we can't be sure. Back to Jerusalem for passover. v22 Caesarea, he 'went up' and greeted the church. Possibly Jerusalem? Then back to Antioch. After this, it's his third (and last) missionary journey. Strengthen disciples. All of a sudden, the journey through the fog is over and he's back in Antioch. [brief recap of 2nd journey] Glory of God: where he guides, he provides. He gives what we need for obedience, as we trust and go. FCF: We distrust and become disheartened, crushing anxiety, or outright faithlessness. Jesus: utter dependence upon God, even in absolute darkness (cf Psalm 88) His Work: He is the high priest pleading our case, securing our access and favour. He is with us always, by his Spirit. Repentance; turn away from crushing fear and doubt. Faith: Go in courageous faith. 'If he shrinks back, I will have no pleasure in him'.