Daniel’s Vision of the Ram and the Goat 8 1 In the third year of the reign of l King Belshazzar a vision appeared to me, Daniel, m after that which appeared to me m at the first. 2 And I saw in the vision; and when I saw, I was in n Susa the citadel, which is in the province of o Elam. And p I saw in the vision, p and I was at the q Ulai canal. 3 I raised my eyes and saw, and behold, r a ram standing on the bank of the canal. It had two horns, and both horns were high, but one was higher than the other, and the higher one came up last. 4 I saw s the ram charging westward and northward and southward. No t beast u could stand before him, v and there was no one who could rescue from his power. w He did as he pleased and x became great. 5 As I was considering, behold, a y male goat came from the west across the face of the whole earth, without touching the ground. And the goat had y a conspicuous horn between his eyes. 6 He came to z the ram with the two horns, which I had seen standing on the bank of the canal, a and he ran at him in his powerful wrath. 7 I saw him come close to the ram, b and he was enraged against him and struck the ram and broke his two horns. c And the ram had no power to stand before him, but he d cast him down to the ground and trampled on him. And there was no one who could rescue the ram from his power. 8 Then y the goat e became exceedingly great, but when he was strong, the great horn was broken, and instead of it there came up four f conspicuous horns toward f the four winds of heaven. 9 Out of one of them came g a little horn, which grew exceedingly great toward h the south, toward the east, and toward i the glorious land. 10 j It grew great, k even to the host of heaven. And some of the host k and some 1 of l the stars it threw down to the ground and m trampled on them. 11 n It became great, even as great as o the Prince of the host. p And the regular burnt offering was taken away from him, and the place of his sanctuary was overthrown. 12 And a host will be given over to it together with the regular burnt offering because of transgression, 1 and it will throw truth to the ground, and q it will act and prosper. 13 Then I heard r a holy one speaking, and another holy one said to the one who spoke, s “For how long is the vision concerning the regular burnt offering, t the transgression that makes desolate, and the giving over of the sanctuary and host to be trampled underfoot?” 14 And he said to me, 1 “For 2,300 u evenings and mornings. Then the sanctuary shall be restored to its rightful state.” The Interpretation of the Vision 15 When I, Daniel, had seen the vision, I v sought to understand it. And behold, there stood before me one having w the appearance of a man. 16 x And I heard a man’s voice x between the banks of the y Ulai, and it called, z “Gabriel, make this man understand the vision.” 17 So he came near where I stood. And when he came, a I was frightened b and fell on my face. But he said to me, “Understand, c O son of man, that the vision is for d the time of the end.” 18 And when he had spoken to me, e I fell into a deep sleep with my face to the ground. But f he touched me and made me stand up. 19 He said, “Behold, I will make known to you what shall be at the latter end of g the indignation, for it refers to h the appointed time of the end. 20 As for i the ram that you saw with the two horns, these are the kings of j Media and Persia. 21 And k the goat 1 is the king of Greece. And k the great horn between his eyes is l the first king. 22 m As for the horn that was broken, in place of which four others arose, four kingdoms shall arise from his 1 nation, n but not with his power. 23 And at the latter end of their kingdom, when the transgressors have reached their limit, a king of bold face, one who understands riddles, shall arise. 24 His power shall be great— o but not by his own power; and he shall cause fearful destruction p and shall succeed in what he does, q and destroy mighty men and the people who are the saints. 25 r By his cunning he shall make deceit prosper under his hand, and in his own mind s he shall become great. t Without warning he shall destroy many. And he s shall even rise up against the Prince of princes, and he shall be broken—but u by no human hand. 26 The vision of v the evenings and the mornings that has been told w is true, but x seal up the vision, y for it refers to many days from now.” 27 And z I, Daniel, was overcome and lay sick for some days. Then I rose and went about the king’s business, but I was appalled by the vision a and did not understand it.
8 1 בִּשְׁנַ֣ת שָׁל֔וֹשׁ לְמַלְכ֖וּת בֵּלְאשַׁצַּ֣ר הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ חָז֞וֹן נִרְאָ֤ה אֵלַי֙ אֲנִ֣י דָנִיֵּ֔אל אַחֲרֵ֛י הַנִּרְאָ֥ה אֵלַ֖י בַּתְּחִלָּֽה ׃ 2 וָֽאֶרְאֶה֮ בֶּחָזוֹן֒ וַיְהִי֙ בִּרְאֹתִ֔י וַאֲנִי֙ בְּשׁוּשַׁ֣ן הַבִּירָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעֵילָ֣ם הַמְּדִינָ֑ה וָאֶרְאֶה֙ בֶּֽחָז֔וֹן וַאֲנִ֥י הָיִ֖יתִי עַל ־ אוּבַ֥ל אוּלָֽי ׃ 3 וָאֶשָּׂ֤א עֵינַי֙ וָאֶרְאֶ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֣ה ׀ אַ֣יִל אֶחָ֗ד עֹמֵ֛ד לִפְנֵ֥י הָאֻבָ֖ל וְל֣וֹ קְרָנָ֑יִם וְהַקְּרָנַ֣יִם גְּבֹה֗וֹת וְהָאַחַת֙ גְּבֹהָ֣ה מִן ־ הַשֵּׁנִ֔ית וְהַ֨גְּבֹהָ֔ה עֹלָ֖ה בָּאַחֲרֹנָֽה ׃ 4 רָאִ֣יתִי אֶת ־ הָאַ֡יִל מְנַגֵּחַ֩ יָ֨מָּה וְצָפ֜וֹנָה וָנֶ֗גְבָּה וְכָל ־ חַיּוֹת֙ לֹֽא ־ יַֽעַמְד֣וּ לְפָנָ֔יו וְאֵ֥ין מַצִּ֖יל מִיָּד֑וֹ וְעָשָׂ֥ה כִרְצֹנ֖וֹ וְהִגְדִּֽיל ׃ 5 וַאֲנִ֣י ׀ הָיִ֣יתִי מֵבִ֗ין וְהִנֵּ֤ה צְפִיר ־ הָֽעִזִּים֙ בָּ֤א מִן ־ הַֽמַּעֲרָב֙ עַל ־ פְּנֵ֣י כָל ־ הָאָ֔רֶץ וְאֵ֥ין נוֹגֵ֖עַ בָּאָ֑רֶץ וְהַ֨צָּפִ֔יר קֶ֥רֶן חָז֖וּת בֵּ֥ין עֵינָֽיו ׃ 6 וַיָּבֹ֗א עַד ־ הָאַ֙יִל֙ בַּ֣עַל הַקְּרָנַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֣ר רָאִ֔יתִי עֹמֵ֖ד לִפְנֵ֣י הָאֻבָ֑ל וַיָּ֥רָץ אֵלָ֖יו בַּחֲמַ֥ת כֹּחֽוֹ ׃ 7 וּרְאִיתִ֞יו מַגִּ֣יעַ ׀ אֵ֣צֶל הָאַ֗יִל וַיִּתְמַרְמַ֤ר אֵלָיו֙ וַיַּ֣ךְ אֶת ־ הָאַ֔יִל וַיְשַׁבֵּר֙ אֶת ־ שְׁתֵּ֣י קְרָנָ֔יו וְלֹא ־ הָ֥יָה כֹ֛חַ בָּאַ֖יִל לַעֲמֹ֣ד לְפָנָ֑יו וַיַּשְׁלִיכֵ֤הוּ אַ֙רְצָה֙ וַֽיִּרְמְסֵ֔הוּ וְלֹא ־ הָיָ֥ה מַצִּ֛יל לָאַ֖יִל מִיָּדֽוֹ ׃ 8 וּצְפִ֥יר הָעִזִּ֖ים הִגְדִּ֣יל עַד ־ מְאֹ֑ד וּכְעָצְמ֗וֹ נִשְׁבְּרָה֙ הַקֶּ֣רֶן הַגְּדוֹלָ֔ה וַֽתַּעֲלֶ֜נָה חָז֤וּת אַרְבַּע֙ תַּחְתֶּ֔יהָ לְאַרְבַּ֖ע רוּח֥וֹת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם ׃ 9 וּמִן ־ הָאַחַ֣ת מֵהֶ֔ם יָצָ֥א קֶֽרֶן ־ אַחַ֖ת מִצְּעִירָ֑ה וַתִּגְדַּל ־ יֶ֛תֶר אֶל ־ הַנֶּ֥גֶב וְאֶל ־ הַמִּזְרָ֖ח וְאֶל ־ הַצֶּֽבִי ׃ 10 וַתִּגְדַּ֖ל עַד ־ צְבָ֣א הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וַתַּפֵּ֥ל אַ֛רְצָה מִן ־ הַצָּבָ֥א וּמִן ־ הַכּוֹכָבִ֖ים וַֽתִּרְמְסֵֽם ׃ 11 וְעַ֥ד שַֽׂר ־ הַצָּבָ֖א הִגְדִּ֑יל וּמִמֶּ֙נּוּ֙ הרים 1 הַתָּמִ֔יד וְהֻשְׁלַ֖ךְ מְכ֥וֹן מִקְדָּשֽׁוֹ ׃ 12 וְצָבָ֛א תִּנָּתֵ֥ן עַל ־ הַתָּמִ֖יד בְּפָ֑שַׁע וְתַשְׁלֵ֤ךְ אֱמֶת֙ אַ֔רְצָה וְעָשְׂתָ֖ה וְהִצְלִֽיחָה ׃ 13 וָאֶשְׁמְעָ֥ה אֶֽחָד ־ קָד֖וֹשׁ מְדַבֵּ֑ר וַיֹּאמֶר֩ אֶחָ֨ד קָד֜וֹשׁ לַפַּֽלְמוֹנִ֣י הַֽמְדַבֵּ֗ר עַד ־ מָתַ֞י הֶחָז֤וֹן הַתָּמִיד֙ וְהַפֶּ֣שַׁע שֹׁמֵ֔ם תֵּ֛ת וְקֹ֥דֶשׁ וְצָבָ֖א מִרְמָֽס ׃ 14 וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלַ֔י עַ֚ד עֶ֣רֶב בֹּ֔קֶר אַלְפַּ֖יִם וּשְׁלֹ֣שׁ מֵא֑וֹת וְנִצְדַּ֖ק קֹֽדֶשׁ ׃ 15 וַיְהִ֗י בִּרְאֹתִ֛י אֲנִ֥י דָנִיֵּ֖אל אֶת ־ הֶחָז֑וֹן וָאֲבַקְשָׁ֣ה בִינָ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֛ה עֹמֵ֥ד לְנֶגְדִּ֖י כְּמַרְאֵה ־ גָֽבֶר ׃ 16 וָאֶשְׁמַ֥ע קוֹל ־ אָדָ֖ם בֵּ֣ין אוּלָ֑י וַיִּקְרָא֙ וַיֹּאמַ֔ר גַּבְרִיאֵ֕ל הָבֵ֥ן לְהַלָּ֖ז אֶת ־ הַמַּרְאֶֽה ׃ 17 וַיָּבֹא֙ אֵ֣צֶל עָמְדִ֔י וּבְבֹא֣וֹ נִבְעַ֔תִּי וָאֶפְּלָ֖ה עַל ־ פָּנָ֑י וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלַי֙ הָבֵ֣ן בֶּן ־ אָדָ֔ם כִּ֖י לְעֶת ־ קֵ֥ץ הֶחָזֽוֹן ׃ 18 וּבְדַבְּר֣וֹ עִמִּ֔י נִרְדַּ֥מְתִּי עַל ־ פָּנַ֖י אָ֑רְצָה וַיִּ֨גַּע ־ בִּ֔י וַיַּֽעֲמִידֵ֖נִי עַל ־ עָמְדִֽי ׃ 19 וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הִנְנִ֣י מוֹדִֽיעֲךָ֔ אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר ־ יִהְיֶ֖ה בְּאַחֲרִ֣ית הַזָּ֑עַם כִּ֖י לְמוֹעֵ֥ד קֵֽץ ׃ 20 הָאַ֥יִל אֲשֶׁר ־ רָאִ֖יתָ בַּ֣עַל הַקְּרָנָ֑יִם מַלְכֵ֖י מָדַ֥י וּפָרָֽס ׃ 21 וְהַצָּפִ֥יר הַשָּׂעִ֖יר מֶ֣לֶךְ יָוָ֑ן וְהַקֶּ֤רֶן הַגְּדוֹלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בֵּין ־ עֵינָ֔יו ה֖וּא הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ הָרִאשֽׁוֹן ׃ 22 וְהַ֨נִּשְׁבֶּ֔רֶת וַתַּֽעֲמֹ֥דְנָה אַרְבַּ֖ע תַּחְתֶּ֑יהָ אַרְבַּ֧ע מַלְכֻי֛וֹת מִגּ֥וֹי יַעֲמֹ֖דְנָה וְלֹ֥א בְכֹחֽוֹ ׃ 23 וּֽבְאַחֲרִית֙ מַלְכוּתָ֔ם כְּהָתֵ֖ם הַפֹּשְׁעִ֑ים יַעֲמֹ֛ד מֶ֥לֶךְ עַז ־ פָּנִ֖ים וּמֵבִ֥ין חִידֽוֹת ׃ 24 וְעָצַ֤ם כֹּחוֹ֙ וְלֹ֣א בְכֹח֔וֹ וְנִפְלָא֥וֹת יַשְׁחִ֖ית וְהִצְלִ֣יחַ וְעָשָׂ֑ה וְהִשְׁחִ֥ית עֲצוּמִ֖ים וְעַם ־ קְדֹשִֽׁים ׃ 25 וְעַל ־ שִׂכְל֗וֹ וְהִצְלִ֤יחַ מִרְמָה֙ בְּיָד֔וֹ וּבִלְבָב֣וֹ יַגְדִּ֔יל וּבְשַׁלְוָ֖ה יַשְׁחִ֣ית רַבִּ֑ים וְעַ֤ל ־ שַׂר ־ שָׂרִים֙ יַעֲמֹ֔ד וּבְאֶ֥פֶס יָ֖ד יִשָּׁבֵֽר ׃ 26 וּמַרְאֵ֨ה הָעֶ֧רֶב וְהַבֹּ֛קֶר אֲשֶׁ֥ר נֶאֱמַ֖ר אֱמֶ֣ת ה֑וּא וְאַתָּה֙ סְתֹ֣ם הֶֽחָז֔וֹן כִּ֖י לְיָמִ֥ים רַבִּֽים ׃ 27 וַאֲנִ֣י דָנִיֵּ֗אל נִהְיֵ֤יתִי וְנֶֽחֱלֵ֙יתִי֙ יָמִ֔ים וָאָק֕וּם וָאֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה אֶת ־ מְלֶ֣אכֶת הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וָאֶשְׁתּוֹמֵ֥ם עַל ־ הַמַּרְאֶ֖ה וְאֵ֥ין מֵבִֽין ׃ פ
8 1 ἔτους τρίτου βασιλεύοντος Βαλτασαρ ὅρασις ἣν εἶδον ἐγὼ Δανιηλ μετὰ τὸ ἰδεῖν με τὴν πρώτην 2 καὶ εἶδον ἐν τῷ ὁράματι τοῦ ἐνυπνίου μου ἐμοῦ ὄντος ἐν Σούσοις τῇ πόλει ἥτις ἐστὶν ἐν Ἐλυμαῗδι χώρᾳ ἔτι ὄντος μου πρὸς τῇ πύλῃ Αιλαμ 3 ἀναβλέψας εἶδον κριὸν ἕνα μέγαν ἑστῶτα ἀπέναντι τῆς πύλης καὶ εἶχε κέρατα καὶ τὸ ἓν ὑψηλότερον τοῦ ἑτέρου καὶ τὸ ὑψηλότερον ἀνέβαινε 4 μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα εἶδον τὸν κριὸν κερατίζοντα πρὸς ἀνατολὰς καὶ πρὸς βορρᾶν καὶ πρὸς δυσμὰς καὶ μεσημβρίαν καὶ πάντα τὰ θηρία οὐκ ἔστησαν ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἦν ὁ ῥυόμενος ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐποίει ὡς ἤθελε καὶ ὑψώθη 5 καὶ ἐγὼ διενοούμην καὶ ἰδοὺ τράγος αἰγῶν ἤρχετο ἀπὸ δυσμῶν ἐπὶ προσώπου τῆς γῆς καὶ οὐχ ἥπτετο τῆς γῆς καὶ ἦν τοῦ τράγου κέρας ἓν ἀνὰ μέσον τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτοῦ 6 καὶ ἦλθεν ἐπὶ τὸν κριὸν τὸν τὰ κέρατα ἔχοντα ὃν εἶδον ἑστῶτα πρὸς τῇ πύλῃ καὶ ἔδραμε πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐν θυμῷ ὀργῆς 7 καὶ εἶδον αὐτὸν προσάγοντα πρὸς τὸν κριόν καὶ ἐθυμώθη ἐπ’ αὐτὸν καὶ ἐπάταξε καὶ συνέτριψε τὰ δύο κέρατα αὐτοῦ καὶ οὐκέτι ἦν ἰσχὺς ἐν τῷ κριῷ στῆναι κατέναντι τοῦ τράγου καὶ ἐσπάραξεν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ συνέτριψεν αὐτόν καὶ οὐκ ἦν ὁ ῥυόμενος τὸν κριὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ τράγου 8 καὶ ὁ τράγος τῶν αἰγῶν κατίσχυσε σφόδρα καὶ ὅτε κατίσχυσε συνετρίβη αὐτοῦ τὸ κέρας τὸ μέγα καὶ ἀνέβη ἕτερα τέσσαρα κέρατα κατόπισθεν αὐτοῦ εἰς τοὺς τέσσαρας ἀνέμους τοῦ οὐρανοῦ 9 καὶ ἐξ ἑνὸς αὐτῶν ἀνεφύη κέρας ἰσχυρὸν ἓν καὶ κατίσχυσε καὶ ἐπάταξεν ἐπὶ μεσημβρίαν καὶ ἐπ’ ἀνατολὰς καὶ ἐπὶ βορρᾶν 10 καὶ ὑψώθη ἕως τῶν ἀστέρων τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἐρράχθη ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ἀπὸ τῶν ἀστέρων καὶ ἀπὸ αὐτῶν κατεπατήθη 11 ἕως ὁ ἀρχιστράτηγος ῥύσεται τὴν αἰχμαλωσίαν καὶ δι’ αὐτὸν τὰ ὄρη τὰ ἀπ’ αἰῶνος ἐρράχθη καὶ ἐξήρθη ὁ τόπος αὐτῶν καὶ θυσία καὶ ἔθηκεν αὐτὴν ἕως χαμαὶ ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ εὐωδώθη καὶ ἐγενήθη καὶ τὸ ἅγιον ἐρημωθήσεται 12 καὶ ἐγενήθησαν ἐπὶ τῇ θυσίᾳ αἱ ἁμαρτίαι καὶ ἐρρίφη χαμαὶ ἡ δικαιοσύνη καὶ ἐποίησε καὶ εὐωδώθη 13 καὶ ἤκουον ἑτέρου ἁγίου λαλοῦντος καὶ εἶπεν ὁ ἕτερος τῷ φελμουνι τῷ λαλοῦντι ἕως τίνος τὸ ὅραμα στήσεται καὶ ἡ θυσία ἡ ἀρθεῖσα καὶ ἡ ἁμαρτία ἐρημώσεως ἡ δοθεῖσα καὶ τὰ ἅγια ἐρημωθήσεται εἰς καταπάτημα 14 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ἕως ἑσπέρας καὶ πρωὶ ἡμέραι δισχίλιαι τριακόσιαι καὶ καθαρισθήσεται τὸ ἅγιον 15 καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ θεωρεῖν με ἐγὼ Δανιηλ τὸ ὅραμα ἐζήτουν διανοηθῆναι καὶ ἰδοὺ ἔστη κατεναντίον μου ὡς ὅρασις ἀνθρώπου 16 καὶ ἤκουσα φωνὴν ἀνθρώπου ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ Ουλαι καὶ ἐκάλεσε καὶ εἶπεν Γαβριηλ συνέτισον ἐκεῖνον τὴν ὅρασιν καὶ ἀναβοήσας εἶπεν ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐπὶ τὸ πρόσταγμα ἐκεῖνο ἡ ὅρασις 17 καὶ ἦλθε καὶ ἔστη ἐχόμενός μου τῆς στάσεως καὶ ἐν τῷ ἔρχεσθαι αὐτὸν ἐθορυβήθην καὶ ἔπεσα ἐπὶ πρόσωπόν μου καὶ εἶπέν μοι διανοήθητι υἱὲ ἀνθρώπου ἔτι γὰρ εἰς ὥραν καιροῦ τοῦτο τὸ ὅραμα 18 καὶ λαλοῦντος αὐτοῦ μετ’ ἐμοῦ ἐκοιμήθην ἐπὶ πρόσωπον χαμαί καὶ ἁψάμενός μου ἤγειρέ με ἐπὶ τοῦ τόπου 19 καὶ εἶπέ μοι ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἀπαγγέλλω σοι ἃ ἔσται ἐπ’ ἐσχάτου τῆς ὀργῆς τοῖς υἱοῖς τοῦ λαοῦ σου ἔτι γὰρ εἰς ὥρας καιροῦ συντελείας μενεῖ 20 τὸν κριὸν ὃν εἶδες τὸν ἔχοντα τὰ κέρατα βασιλεὺς Μήδων καὶ Περσῶν ἐστι 21 καὶ ὁ τράγος τῶν αἰγῶν βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἐστί καὶ τὸ κέρας τὸ μέγα τὸ ἀνὰ μέσον τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτοῦ αὐτὸς ὁ βασιλεὺς ὁ πρῶτος 22 καὶ τὰ συντριβέντα καὶ ἀναβάντα ὀπίσω αὐτοῦ τέσσαρα κέρατα τέσσαρες βασιλεῖς τοῦ ἔθνους αὐτοῦ ἀναστήσονται οὐ κατὰ τὴν ἰσχὺν αὐτοῦ 23 καὶ ἐπ’ ἐσχάτου τῆς βασιλείας αὐτῶν πληρουμένων τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν ἀναστήσεται βασιλεὺς ἀναιδὴς προσώπῳ διανοούμενος αἰνίγματα 24 καὶ στερεωθήσεται ἡ ἰσχὺς αὐτοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἐν τῇ ἰσχύι αὐτοῦ καὶ θαυμαστῶς φθερεῖ καὶ εὐοδωθήσεται καὶ ποιήσει καὶ φθερεῖ δυνάστας καὶ δῆμον ἁγίων 25 καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἁγίους τὸ διανόημα αὐτοῦ καὶ εὐοδωθήσεται τὸ ψεῦδος ἐν ταῖς χερσὶν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡ καρδία αὐτοῦ ὑψωθήσεται καὶ δόλῳ ἀφανιεῖ πολλοὺς καὶ ἐπὶ ἀπωλείας ἀνδρῶν στήσεται καὶ ποιήσει συναγωγὴν χειρὸς καὶ ἀποδώσεται 26 τὸ ὅραμα τὸ ἑσπέρας καὶ πρωὶ ηὑρέθη ἐπ’ ἀληθείας καὶ νῦν πεφραγμένον τὸ ὅραμα ἔτι γὰρ εἰς ἡμέρας πολλάς 27 ἐγὼ Δανιηλ ἀσθενήσας ἡμέρας πολλὰς καὶ ἀναστὰς ἐπραγματευόμην πάλιν βασιλικά καὶ ἐξελυόμην ἐπὶ τῷ ὁράματι καὶ οὐδεὶς ἦν ὁ διανοούμενος
Daniel sees that God is bigger than the dark days that lie ahead Introduction To be forewarned/prepared makes all the difference to times of immense suffering. Why all this? To prepare and forewarn God's people cf John 16.1-4 ? God and his kingdom are bigger than the times of tribulation that are coming v1-14 Daniel has a vision involving great suffering for God's people In his vision he's in Susa, at the Ulai canal. Susa = Shushan = capital of Persia. Third year of Belshazzar - so, shortly before the writing on the wall. Ram is medes and persians; larger horn the persian dominance. Goat is the greeks; Alexander the huge horn. Alexander the Great vs Darius and the persians, Granicus River 334BC. 31,000 greeks vs 100,000 footment and 10,000 horses. Apparently killed 20,000 losing only 100. Full victory in 331 BC. Succeeded by 4 generals Amazingly accurate summary of this history. Which is why critics insist that Daniel was written way, way later. Why focus in now on the little horn? Because he turned towards the 'glorious land'. God's judgement turns on this question: how did you treat my people? cf Paul, or cf Matthew 25.31-46 . v9-12 the little horn becomes great/makes itself great; arrogance. Opposing God, right worship, his people, and truth. Judah had been under Egyptian (Ptolemaic) control for nearly 100 years (300-200BC). In 198BC, Antiochus III ('the Great') defeated the Egyptians and Palestine was passed into Seleucid (Syrian) hands. Antiochus III defeated by the Romans 190 BC at Magnesia and died 187 BC. By 175 BC Antiochus IV had taken power. He called himself Epiphanes (God revealed/manifest - ie Zeus), and had that inscribed on coins. But people called him Epimanes (Madman). Good soldier, always strapped for cash as fighting wars. In 169 BC, Antiochus had invaded Egypt and on his way back came to Jerusalem where Menelaus, the traitor who had paid for the high priesthood handed over a stack of treasure and sacred furniture from the temple [cf Belshazzar]. According to 1 Maccabees 1.20-23 and 2 Maccabees 5.15-16 , 21 , he took away 1,800 talents. While Antiochus had been in Egypt, Jason - the ousted high priest - had attacked Jerusalem, only partially successfully. Antiochus saw this as a revolt and carried out a blood bath - 80,000 in three days according to 2 Maccabees 5.14 . It's in this historical context that Judas Maccabeus and followers began their nationalist exploits (167-160 BC). Hence, books of Maccabees. Hannukah celebrates the re-dedication of the temple. In 167 BC Antiochus sent Apollonius his tax collector to pillage, massacre and ruin Jerusalem; 1 Maccabees 1.29-40 . And a forced hellenization program designed to corrupt every aspect of Israel's faith and practice. Worship of YHWH had to be swapped with worship of pagan gods. Statue of Zeus, and sacrifice of a pig on the altar. Anyone with a child circumcised, or found with a scroll of Torah, was put to death. Foreshadow of antichrist cf 2 Thessalonians 2.3-10 . Unclean meat was mandatory. The question asked is not 'why?' but 'how long'. And even if we can't fully understand the significance of the numbers, we can see that a) it was a pretty long time and b) the time was definitely limited. the little horn opposes God (prince of the host), eradicates God's worship, crushes God's people. The regular offering [tamid] was 'suspended' - that's the offering of a lamb sacrificed morning and twilight daily. Fierce features/bold face. Hard-nosed? Understands sinister schemes/riddles. I.e., smart. God's image-given ability to reason etc twisted toward evil ends. No integrity - cause deceit to prosper. cf how satanic he is; Satan the great deceiver Gen 3.13; 1 Tim 2.14; Rev 12.9. ultimately deceives itself. v10 he threw down some of the host? cf v12-13 clearly he harms some of the earthly host of God's people. So the significance of his attack on God's people and sanctuary is that of attacking the heavenly host. cf Paul, 'why are you persecuting me'? The visible realities have transcendent counterparts which Antiochus denied. v12 whose trangression? Probably Antiochus' in light of v13. Statue to Zeus, sacrificing a pig, etc. Or translated 'in an act of rebellion'. 2,300 either from the start of Antiochus' persecution in 170/171 BC ish, until cleansing and re-dedication of temple in 164 BC under Judas Maccabeus. Or, it's two sacrifices per day and so half the time - from 167 when he desecrated the temple until it was cleansed. Either 3 and a bit years or 6 and a bit years in total. Literally 'two thousand three hundred evening-mornings'. Either days, ie whole time of his blasphemous activities, or evening/morning sacrifices ie three and a half years. Time, times and half a time. Between desecration of temple (statue of Zeus) and ultimate cleansing. Antiochus IV died in mysterious circumstances while returning from Persia. Contracted an exceedingly painful disease, which was accompanied - according to 1 Maccabees - by deep psychological anguish. As a consequence the Seleucid army got turned away back to Syria and the Maccabeans succeeded. And the 2,300 days are fulfilled, however you measure it. Applications Hard for us to imagine since...if we came to church and found islamic readings etc. We could gather in homes and be no less 'church'. Sacred space doesn't exist in same way. For us the sacred space never can be desecrated. little horn, mountain range; function criteria fulfilled in Antiochus IV but made larger again in the final version 2 Thessalonians 2.3-10 . And also therefore, 'many antichrists' 1 John 2.18. v15-27 The vision is explained to Daniel, who is reminded that God has this all under control It is emphasised that Daniel must understand the vision, v16-17. What does it mean to understand the vision? cf v23-27; insight into the nature and causes of the conflict. 'Daniel's vision gives him some understanding of the nature of evil and the reasons that it must be destroyed if the kingdom of God is to last forever.' Nb how 'little horn' is like a motif which functions slightly differently. It can't mean Antiochus in Daniel 7 , and yet it can't not mean him in Daniel 8 . It's a powerful person who raises up himself in opposition to God and his people. Time of the end; not necessarily 'end times', but end of this period of suffering 2,300. Indignation - word overwhelmingly often means YHWH's anger. I.e., against those persecuting his people and land. The end, here, refers to v19. End of this period of indignation. Gabriel has been sent to assure Daniel that there will be an end. God's destruction of Antiochus will be a foretaste of his final destruction of Antichrist. Because of our historical skewness, we see this as some obscure detail. But this was a huge deal for Israel; they had never had persecution on this scale and intensity. This vision was a gracious warning ahead of time. v27 he was appalled and gutted at the suffering that would fall on his people. Daniel overwhelmed and gutted at the evil that was to come; even though he personally wouldn't experience it. He is burdened for the kingdom and people of God. He was not 'outraged' - he was overwhelmed with grief. v27 he didn't retire from the world and responsibilities. Or start a blog and podcast about the end times. He went about his business in the world. How to live, even if you're sure you have it right about what's coming? Get on with your duties. Live holy lives now. Applications Evil will overstep itself, since it is proud. Even great mean will shown all of a sudden to be weak. wars, rumours of wars, nation against nation - these are not the signs of the end; they are the signs of the present evil age The pattern of satanic opposition to God. Again emphasise the 'growth of both' pattern. The pattern of Satan's opposition to God and his Kingdom. He seeks to destroy God's new temple; the living fellowship of the church. Persecution, lies, false teaching, slander, unforgiveness, isolation. E.g., under the guise of a right principle, someone can easily cause immense disharmony in a church, a shift of focus away from Jesus. Unforgiveness, isolation are the consequences. But 1 Peter 5.8-9. Conclusion I have told you these things so that in me you might have peace... God's glory: He has evil on a leash, he preserves his people, his kingdom continues in victory. FCF: pride and boastfulness. Living in God's world without reference to God. Person of Jesus: All authority; permits evil rulers for a season. He will tear them down and judge them. Rules as human being; in total dependence upon God. Work of Jesus: He became the true suffering Israel on the cross. Full indignation and desolation of God's people in God's land under foreign rule. The utter abomination of desolation. Union with Christ: remain in him. Resist the devil, firm in your faith.