David defeats the Ammonites (the backdrop to Bathsheba) Introduction Key caravan route (King's Highway); passes to David by the end. He didn't start the fight, but it ends up working well for him and his kingdom 10.14 Ammonite problem not yet resolved in this chapter, just that 10.19 Syrians won't help them anymore. This is backdrop to Bathsheba affair, and book ends it. So chapter 10 looks both ways. Back, since David continues to show HESED. But forwards, since this situation that emerges will sadly be the one within which we abandons HESED, and suffers the consequences. 1. Loyalty is met with hostility v1-5 Our God shows terms of peace and steadfast love towards us. Our animosity towards God and his Christ - Psalm 2 . And then make matters worse by continuing in that rebellion. Covenant loyalty to everyone. HESED again. Courtesy. Thus chapters 9-10 are a massive contrast to the abandoning of hesed in chapters 11-12. Shame as theme. David acts as good shepherd to his men. Application : Showing love to all, even those far off. Matthew 5 etc. 2. Hostility escalates to war v6-14 Lots of space given to Joab's little speech, v11-12. We can't put him in a black and white box as a pure 'baddie'. He speaks the truth here! He's a flawed character, a real character! Decision making and faith; we don't know the details, but we know the rock-solid certainty of the promises. Application: Much of wisdom is the on-the-fly wise decision making, amidst the load-bearing walls of the promises of God. E.g., we know Romans 8.28 but we still have to make decisions; we know he gives our daily bread but we still need to decide about jobs and money and shopping, 3. God and his king are victorious v15-19 10.14 Ammonite problem not yet resolved in this chapter, just that 10.19 Syrians won't help them anymore. This is backdrop to Bathsheba affair, and book ends it. So chapter 10 looks both ways. Back, since David continues to show HESED. But forwards, since this situation that emerges will sadly be the one within which we abandons HESED, and suffers the consequences. Application : How to read and interpret the Bible; how do we 'fight' now? How does that theme apply? 'Fighting for the cities of our God' etc. Right-wing gets it wrong by reducing down to 'issues' and 'causes'; spiritualising away the realities of the OT into war against communism, abortion, etc. Left wing gets it wrong by dismissing it altogether, or making 'war' a pietistic, internal and subjective affair. Neither is actually following the Bible in how to interpret itself - although for sure there are causes we must fight against, and internal struggles against sin we do battle in. But 2 Sam 10 doesn't head us that way. Instead, war has been made against God's king - Psalm 2 again - and God has been victorious through him. Humanity has rebelled against God in Jesus, putting him to death, yet God has vindicated him and through him crushed his enemies. Even more, in his victory Jesus identifies with our shaming and suffering, as soldiers spat on him and pulled at his beard, as bystanders mocked him and as he died naked upon a cross. Like David, Jesus is the king who keeps showing HESED. Unlike David, Jesus is the king whose HESED will not - and cannot be ever removed, forgotten, or exhausted.
2 Samuel 10:1-19
David Defeats Ammon and Syria 10 1 s After this the king of the Ammonites died, and Hanun his son reigned in his place. 2 And David said, “I will deal loyally 1 with Hanun the son of t Nahash, as his father dealt loyally with me.” So David sent by his servants to console him concerning his father. And David’s servants came into the land of the Ammonites. 3 But the princes of the Ammonites said to Hanun their lord, “Do you think, because David has sent comforters to you, that he is honoring your father? Has not David sent his servants to you to search the city and to spy it out and to overthrow it?” 4 So Hanun took David’s servants and shaved off half the beard of each and cut off their garments in the middle, u at their hips, and sent them away. 5 When it was told David, he sent to meet them, for the men were greatly ashamed. And the king said, “Remain at Jericho until your beards have grown and then return.” 6 When the Ammonites saw that they had become a stench to David, the Ammonites sent and hired the Syrians of v Beth-rehob, and w the Syrians of Zobah, 20,000 foot soldiers, and the king of x Maacah with 1,000 men, and the men of y Tob, 12,000 men. 7 And when David heard of it, he sent Joab and all the host of z the mighty men. 8 And the Ammonites came out and drew up in battle array at the entrance of the gate, and w the Syrians of Zobah and of Rehob and y the men of Tob and Maacah were by themselves in the open country. 9 When Joab saw that the battle was set against him both in front and in the rear, he chose some of the best men of Israel and arrayed them against the Syrians. 10 The rest of his men he put in the charge of Abishai his brother, and he arrayed them against the Ammonites. 11 And he said, “If the Syrians are too strong for me, then you shall help me, but if the Ammonites are too strong for you, then I will come and help you. 12 a Be of good courage, and b let us be courageous for our people, and for the cities of our God, and c may the Lord do what seems good to him.” 13 So Joab and the people who were with him drew near to battle against the Syrians, and they fled before him. 14 And when the Ammonites saw that the Syrians fled, they likewise fled before Abishai and entered the city. Then Joab returned from fighting against the Ammonites and came to Jerusalem. 15 But when the Syrians saw that they had been defeated by Israel, they gathered themselves together. 16 And Hadadezer sent and brought out the Syrians who were beyond d the Euphrates. 1 They came to Helam, with e Shobach the commander of the army of Hadadezer at their head. 17 And when it was told David, he gathered all Israel together and crossed the Jordan and came to Helam. The Syrians arrayed themselves against David and fought with him. 18 And the Syrians fled before Israel, and David killed of the Syrians the men of 700 chariots, and 40,000 horsemen, and wounded f Shobach the commander of their army, so that he died there. 19 And when all the kings who were servants of Hadadezer saw that they had been defeated by Israel, they made peace with Israel g and became subject to them. So the Syrians were afraid to save the Ammonites anymore.
2 Samuel 10:1-19
10 1 וַֽיְהִי֙ אַֽחֲרֵי ־ כֵ֔ן וַיָּ֕מָת מֶ֖לֶךְ בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֑וֹן וַיִּמְלֹ֛ךְ חָנ֥וּן בְּנ֖וֹ תַּחְתָּֽיו ׃ 2 וַיֹּ֨אמֶר דָּוִ֜ד אֶעֱשֶׂה ־ חֶ֣סֶד ׀ עִם ־ חָנ֣וּן בֶּן ־ נָחָ֗שׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ עָשָׂ֨ה אָבִ֤יו עִמָּדִי֙ חֶ֔סֶד וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח דָּוִ֧ד לְנַחֲמ֛וֹ בְּיַד ־ עֲבָדָ֖יו אֶל ־ אָבִ֑יו וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ עַבְדֵ֣י דָוִ֔ד אֶ֖רֶץ בְּנֵ֥י עַמּֽוֹן ׃ 3 וַיֹּאמְרוּ֩ שָׂרֵ֨י בְנֵֽי ־ עַמּ֜וֹן אֶל ־ חָנ֣וּן אֲדֹֽנֵיהֶ֗ם הַֽמְכַבֵּ֨ד דָּוִ֤ד אֶת ־ אָבִ֙יךָ֙ בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ כִּֽי ־ שָׁלַ֥ח לְךָ֖ מְנַֽחֲמִ֑ים הֲ֠לוֹא בַּעֲב֞וּר חֲק֤וֹר אֶת ־ הָעִיר֙ וּלְרַגְּלָ֣הּ וּלְהָפְכָ֔הּ שָׁלַ֥ח דָּוִ֛ד אֶת ־ עֲבָדָ֖יו אֵלֶֽיךָ ׃ 4 וַיִּקַּ֨ח חָנ֜וּן אֶת ־ עַבְדֵ֣י דָוִ֗ד וַיְגַלַּח֙ אֶת ־ חֲצִ֣י זְקָנָ֔ם וַיִּכְרֹ֧ת אֶת ־ מַדְוֵיהֶ֛ם בַּחֵ֖צִי עַ֣ד שְׁתֽוֹתֵיהֶ֑ם וַֽיְשַׁלְּחֵֽם ׃ 5 וַיַּגִּ֤דוּ לְדָוִד֙ וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח לִקְרָאתָ֔ם כִּֽי ־ הָי֥וּ הָאֲנָשִׁ֖ים נִכְלָמִ֣ים מְאֹ֑ד וַיֹּ֤אמֶר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ שְׁב֣וּ בִֽירֵח֔וֹ עַד ־ יְצַמַּ֥ח זְקַנְכֶ֖ם וְשַׁבְתֶּֽם ׃ 6 וַיִּרְאוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן כִּ֥י נִבְאֲשׁ֖וּ בְּדָוִ֑ד וַיִּשְׁלְח֣וּ בְנֵֽי ־ עַמּ֡וֹן וַיִּשְׂכְּרוּ֩ אֶת ־ אֲרַ֨ם בֵּית ־ רְח֜וֹב וְאֶת ־ אֲרַ֣ם צוֹבָ֗א עֶשְׂרִ֥ים אֶ֙לֶף֙ רַגְלִ֔י וְאֶת ־ מֶ֤לֶךְ מַֽעֲכָה֙ אֶ֣לֶף אִ֔ישׁ וְאִ֣ישׁ ט֔וֹב שְׁנֵים ־ עָשָׂ֥ר אֶ֖לֶף אִֽישׁ ׃ 7 וַיִּשְׁמַ֖ע דָּוִ֑ד וַיִּשְׁלַח֙ אֶת ־ יוֹאָ֔ב וְאֵ֥ת כָּל ־ הַצָּבָ֖א הַגִּבֹּרִֽים ׃ 8 וַיֵּֽצְאוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן וַיַּעַרְכ֥וּ מִלְחָמָ֖ה פֶּ֣תַח הַשָּׁ֑עַר וַאֲרַ֨ם צוֹבָ֤א וּרְחוֹב֙ וְאִֽישׁ ־ ט֣וֹב וּמַֽעֲכָ֔ה לְבַדָּ֖ם בַּשָּׂדֶֽה ׃ 9 וַיַּ֣רְא יוֹאָ֗ב כִּֽי ־ הָיְתָ֤ה אֵלָיו֙ פְּנֵ֣י הַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה מִפָּנִ֖ים וּמֵֽאָח֑וֹר וַיִּבְחַ֗ר מִכֹּל֙ בְּחוּרֵ֣י בישראל 1 וַֽיַּעֲרֹ֖ךְ לִקְרַ֥את אֲרָֽם ׃ 10 וְאֵת֙ יֶ֣תֶר הָעָ֔ם נָתַ֕ן בְּיַ֖ד אַבְשַׁ֣י אָחִ֑יו וַֽיַּעֲרֹ֕ךְ לִקְרַ֖את בְּנֵ֥י עַמּֽוֹן ׃ 11 וַיֹּ֗אמֶר אִם ־ תֶּחֱזַ֤ק אֲרָם֙ מִמֶּ֔נִּי וְהָיִ֥תָה לִּ֖י לִֽישׁוּעָ֑ה וְאִם ־ בְּנֵ֤י עַמּוֹן֙ יֶחֱזְק֣וּ מִמְּךָ֔ וְהָלַכְתִּ֖י לְהוֹשִׁ֥יעַֽ לָֽךְ ׃ 12 חֲזַ֤ק וְנִתְחַזַּק֙ בְּעַד ־ עַמֵּ֔נוּ וּבְעַ֖ד עָרֵ֣י אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ וַֽיהוָ֔ה יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה הַטּ֖וֹב בְּעֵינָֽיו ׃ 13 וַיִּגַּ֣שׁ יוֹאָ֗ב וְהָעָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִמּ֔וֹ לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה בַּֽאֲרָ֑ם וַיָּנֻ֖סוּ מִפָּנָֽיו ׃ 14 וּבְנֵ֨י עַמּ֤וֹן רָאוּ֙ כִּי ־ נָ֣ס אֲרָ֔ם וַיָּנֻ֙סוּ֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י אֲבִישַׁ֔י וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ הָעִ֑יר וַיָּ֣שָׁב יוֹאָ֗ב מֵעַל֙ בְּנֵ֣י עַמּ֔וֹן וַיָּבֹ֖א יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם ׃ 15 וַיַּ֣רְא אֲרָ֔ם כִּ֥י נִגַּ֖ף לִפְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֵּאָסְפ֖וּ יָֽחַד ׃ 16 וַיִּשְׁלַ֣ח הֲדַדְעֶ֗זֶר וַיֹּצֵ֤א אֶת ־ אֲרָם֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ מֵעֵ֣בֶר הַנָּהָ֔ר וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ חֵילָ֑ם וְשׁוֹבַ֛ךְ שַׂר ־ צְבָ֥א הֲדַדְעֶ֖זֶר לִפְנֵיהֶֽם ׃ 17 וַיֻּגַּ֣ד לְדָוִ֗ד ס וַיֶּאֱסֹ֤ף אֶת ־ כָּל ־ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וַיַּעֲבֹ֣ר אֶת ־ הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וַיָּבֹ֖א חֵלָ֑אמָה וַיַּעַרְכ֤וּ אֲרָם֙ לִקְרַ֣את דָּוִ֔ד וַיִּלָּחֲמ֖וּ עִמּֽוֹ ׃ 18 וַיָּ֣נָס אֲרָם֮ מִפְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַיַּהֲרֹ֨ג דָּוִ֜ד מֵאֲרָ֗ם שְׁבַ֤ע מֵאוֹת֙ רֶ֔כֶב וְאַרְבָּעִ֥ים אֶ֖לֶף פָּרָשִׁ֑ים וְאֵ֨ת שׁוֹבַ֧ךְ שַׂר ־ צְבָא֛וֹ הִכָּ֖ה וַיָּ֥מָת שָֽׁם ׃ 19 וַיִּרְא֨וּ כָֽל ־ הַמְּלָכִ֜ים עַבְדֵ֣י הֲדַדְעֶ֗זֶר כִּ֤י נִגְּפוּ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיַּשְׁלִ֥מוּ אֶת ־ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וַיַּֽעַבְד֑וּם וַיִּֽרְא֣וּ אֲרָ֔ם לְהוֹשִׁ֥יעַ ע֖וֹד אֶת ־ בְּנֵ֥י עַמּֽוֹן ׃ פ
2 Samuel 10:1-19
10 1 καὶ ἐγένετο μετὰ ταῦτα καὶ ἀπέθανεν βασιλεὺς υἱῶν Αμμων καὶ ἐβασίλευσεν Αννων υἱὸς αὐτοῦ ἀντ’ αὐτοῦ 2 καὶ εἶπεν Δαυιδ ποιήσω ἔλεος μετὰ Αννων υἱοῦ Ναας ὃν τρόπον ἐποίησεν ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ μετ’ ἐμοῦ ἔλεος καὶ ἀπέστειλεν Δαυιδ παρακαλέσαι αὐτὸν ἐν χειρὶ τῶν δούλων αὐτοῦ περὶ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ παρεγένοντο οἱ παῖδες Δαυιδ εἰς τὴν γῆν υἱῶν Αμμων 3 καὶ εἶπον οἱ ἄρχοντες υἱῶν Αμμων πρὸς Αννων τὸν κύριον αὐτῶν μὴ παρὰ τὸ δοξάζειν Δαυιδ τὸν πατέρα σου ἐνώπιόν σου ὅτι ἀπέστειλέν σοι παρακαλοῦντας ἀλλ’ οὐχὶ ὅπως ἐρευνήσωσιν τὴν πόλιν καὶ κατασκοπήσωσιν αὐτὴν καὶ τοῦ κατασκέψασθαι αὐτὴν ἀπέστειλεν Δαυιδ τοὺς παῖδας αὐτοῦ πρὸς σέ 4 καὶ ἔλαβεν Αννων τοὺς παῖδας Δαυιδ καὶ ἐξύρησεν τοὺς πώγωνας αὐτῶν καὶ ἀπέκοψεν τοὺς μανδύας αὐτῶν ἐν τῷ ἡμίσει ἕως τῶν ἰσχίων αὐτῶν καὶ ἐξαπέστειλεν αὐτούς 5 καὶ ἀνήγγειλαν τῷ Δαυιδ ὑπὲρ τῶν ἀνδρῶν καὶ ἀπέστειλεν εἰς ἀπαντὴν αὐτῶν ὅτι ἦσαν οἱ ἄνδρες ἠτιμασμένοι σφόδρα καὶ εἶπεν ὁ βασιλεύς καθίσατε ἐν Ιεριχω ἕως τοῦ ἀνατεῖλαι τοὺς πώγωνας ὑμῶν καὶ ἐπιστραφήσεσθε 6 καὶ εἶδαν οἱ υἱοὶ Αμμων ὅτι κατῃσχύνθησαν ὁ λαὸς Δαυιδ καὶ ἀπέστειλαν οἱ υἱοὶ Αμμων καὶ ἐμισθώσαντο τὴν Συρίαν Βαιθροωβ εἴκοσι χιλιάδας πεζῶν καὶ τὸν βασιλέα Μααχα χιλίους ἄνδρας καὶ Ιστωβ δώδεκα χιλιάδας ἀνδρῶν 7 καὶ ἤκουσεν Δαυιδ καὶ ἀπέστειλεν τὸν Ιωαβ καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν δύναμιν τοὺς δυνατούς 8 καὶ ἐξῆλθαν οἱ υἱοὶ Αμμων καὶ παρετάξαντο πόλεμον παρὰ τῇ θύρᾳ τῆς πύλης καὶ Συρία Σουβα καὶ Ροωβ καὶ Ιστωβ καὶ Μααχα μόνοι ἐν ἀγρῷ 9 καὶ εἶδεν Ιωαβ ὅτι ἐγενήθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀντιπρόσωπον τοῦ πολέμου ἐκ τοῦ κατὰ πρόσωπον ἐξ ἐναντίας καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ὄπισθεν καὶ ἐπέλεξεν ἐκ πάντων τῶν νεανίσκων Ισραηλ καὶ παρετάξαντο ἐξ ἐναντίας Συρίας 10 καὶ τὸ κατάλοιπον τοῦ λαοῦ ἔδωκεν ἐν χειρὶ Αβεσσα τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ καὶ παρετάξαντο ἐξ ἐναντίας υἱῶν Αμμων 11 καὶ εἶπεν ἐὰν κραταιωθῇ Συρία ὑπὲρ ἐμέ καὶ ἔσεσθέ μοι εἰς σωτηρίαν καὶ ἐὰν υἱοὶ Αμμων κραταιωθῶσιν ὑπὲρ σέ καὶ ἐσόμεθα τοῦ σῶσαί σε 12 ἀνδρίζου καὶ κραταιωθῶμεν ὑπὲρ τοῦ λαοῦ ἡμῶν καὶ περὶ τῶν πόλεων τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν καὶ κύριος ποιήσει τὸ ἀγαθὸν ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς αὐτοῦ 13 καὶ προσῆλθεν Ιωαβ καὶ ὁ λαὸς αὐτοῦ μετ’ αὐτοῦ εἰς πόλεμον πρὸς Συρίαν καὶ ἔφυγαν ἀπὸ προσώπου αὐτοῦ 14 καὶ οἱ υἱοὶ Αμμων εἶδαν ὅτι ἔφυγεν Συρία καὶ ἔφυγαν ἀπὸ προσώπου Αβεσσα καὶ εἰσῆλθαν εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ ἀνέστρεψεν Ιωαβ ἀπὸ τῶν υἱῶν Αμμων καὶ παρεγένοντο εἰς Ιερουσαλημ 15 καὶ εἶδεν Συρία ὅτι ἔπταισεν ἔμπροσθεν Ισραηλ καὶ συνήχθησαν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό 16 καὶ ἀπέστειλεν Αδρααζαρ καὶ συνήγαγεν τὴν Συρίαν τὴν ἐκ τοῦ πέραν τοῦ ποταμοῦ Χαλαμακ καὶ παρεγένοντο Αιλαμ καὶ Σωβακ ἄρχων τῆς δυνάμεως Αδρααζαρ ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν 17 καὶ ἀνηγγέλη τῷ Δαυιδ καὶ συνήγαγεν τὸν πάντα Ισραηλ καὶ διέβη τὸν Ιορδάνην καὶ παρεγένοντο εἰς Αιλαμ καὶ παρετάξατο Συρία ἀπέναντι Δαυιδ καὶ ἐπολέμησαν μετ’ αὐτοῦ 18 καὶ ἔφυγεν Συρία ἀπὸ προσώπου Ισραηλ καὶ ἀνεῖλεν Δαυιδ ἐκ τῆς Συρίας ἑπτακόσια ἅρματα καὶ τεσσαράκοντα χιλιάδας ἱππέων καὶ τὸν Σωβακ τὸν ἄρχοντα τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ ἐπάταξεν καὶ ἀπέθανεν ἐκεῖ 19 καὶ εἶδαν πάντες οἱ βασιλεῖς οἱ δοῦλοι Αδρααζαρ ὅτι ἔπταισαν ἔμπροσθεν Ισραηλ καὶ ηὐτομόλησαν μετὰ Ισραηλ καὶ ἐδούλευσαν αὐτοῖς καὶ ἐφοβήθη Συρία τοῦ σῶσαι ἔτι τοὺς υἱοὺς Αμμων