Jacob Fears Esau 32 1 Jacob went on his way, and the angels of God met him. 2 And when Jacob saw them he said, “This is God’s t camp!” So he called the name of that place u Mahanaim. 1 3 And Jacob sent 1 messengers before him to Esau his brother in the land of v Seir, the country of Edom, 4 instructing them, “Thus you shall say to my lord Esau: Thus says your servant Jacob, ‘I have sojourned with Laban and stayed until now. 5 I have oxen, donkeys, flocks, male servants, and female servants. I have sent to tell my lord, in order that w I may find favor in your sight.’” 6 And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, “We came to your brother Esau, and x he is coming to meet you, and there are four hundred men with him.” 7 Then Jacob was y greatly afraid and distressed. He divided the people who were with him, and the flocks and herds and camels, into two camps, 8 thinking, “If Esau comes to the one camp and attacks it, then the camp that is left will escape.” 9 And Jacob said, z “O God of my father Abraham and God of my father Isaac, O Lord who a said to me, ‘Return to your country and to your kindred, that I may do you good,’ 10 b I am not worthy of the least of all the deeds of steadfast love and all the faithfulness that you have shown to your servant, for with only my staff I crossed this Jordan, and now I have become two camps. 11 Please deliver me from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau, for c I fear him, that he may come and attack me, the mothers with the children. 12 But d you said, ‘I will surely do you good, and make your offspring as the sand of the sea, which cannot be numbered for multitude.’” 13 So he stayed there that night, and from what he had with him he took e a present for his brother Esau, 14 two hundred female goats and twenty male goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams, 15 thirty milking camels and their calves, forty cows and ten bulls, twenty female donkeys and ten male donkeys. 16 These he handed over to his servants, every drove by itself, and said to his servants, “Pass on ahead of me and put a space between drove and drove.” 17 He instructed the first, “When Esau my brother meets you and asks you, ‘To whom do you belong? Where are you going? And whose are these ahead of you?’ 18 then you shall say, ‘They belong to your servant Jacob. They are a present sent to my lord Esau. And moreover, he is behind us.’” 19 He likewise instructed the second and the third and all who followed the droves, “You shall say the same thing to Esau when you find him, 20 and you shall say, ‘Moreover, your servant Jacob is behind us.’” For he thought, “I may appease him 1 with the present that goes ahead of me, and afterward I shall see his face. Perhaps he will accept me.” 2 21 So the present passed on ahead of him, and he himself stayed that night in the camp. Jacob Wrestles with God 22 The same night he arose and took his two wives, his two female servants, and his eleven children, 1 and crossed the ford of the f Jabbok. 23 He took them and sent them across the stream, and everything else that he had. 24 And Jacob was left alone. And g a man wrestled with him until the breaking of the day. 25 When the man saw that he did not prevail against Jacob, he touched his hip socket, and Jacob’s hip was put out of joint as he wrestled with him. 26 Then he said, “Let me go, for the day has broken.” But Jacob said, h “I will not let you go unless you bless me.” 27 And he said to him, “What is your name?” And he said, “Jacob.” 28 Then he said, i “Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel, 1 for j you have striven with God and k with men, and have prevailed.” 29 Then Jacob asked him, “Please tell me your name.” But he said, l “Why is it that you ask my name?” And there he blessed him. 30 So Jacob called the name of the place Peniel, 1 saying, “For m I have seen God face to face, and yet my life has been delivered.” 31 The sun rose upon him as he passed n Penuel, limping because of his hip. 32 Therefore to this day the people of Israel do not eat the sinew of the thigh that is on the hip socket, because he touched the socket of Jacob’s hip on the sinew of the thigh.
32 1 וַיַּשְׁכֵּ֨ם לָבָ֜ן בַּבֹּ֗קֶר וַיְנַשֵּׁ֧ק לְבָנָ֛יו וְלִבְנוֹתָ֖יו וַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֶתְהֶ֑ם וַיֵּ֛לֶךְ וַיָּ֥שָׁב לָבָ֖ן לִמְקֹמֽוֹ ׃ 2 וְיַעֲקֹ֖ב הָלַ֣ךְ לְדַרְכּ֑וֹ וַיִּפְגְּעוּ ־ ב֖וֹ מַלְאֲכֵ֥י אֱלֹהִֽים ׃ 3 וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יַעֲקֹב֙ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר רָאָ֔ם מַחֲנֵ֥ה אֱלֹהִ֖ים זֶ֑ה וַיִּקְרָ֛א שֵֽׁם ־ הַמָּק֥וֹם הַה֖וּא מַֽחֲנָֽיִם ׃ פ 4 וַיִּשְׁלַ֨ח יַעֲקֹ֤ב מַלְאָכִים֙ לְפָנָ֔יו אֶל ־ עֵשָׂ֖ו אָחִ֑יו אַ֥רְצָה שֵׂעִ֖יר שְׂדֵ֥ה אֱדֽוֹם ׃ 5 וַיְצַ֤ו אֹתָם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר כֹּ֣ה תֹאמְר֔וּן לַֽאדֹנִ֖י לְעֵשָׂ֑ו כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ עַבְדְּךָ֣ 1 יַעֲקֹ֔ב עִם ־ לָבָ֣ן גַּ֔רְתִּי וָאֵחַ֖ר עַד ־ עָֽתָּה ׃ 6 וַֽיְהִי ־ לִי֙ שׁ֣וֹר וַחֲמ֔וֹר צֹ֖אן וְעֶ֣בֶד וְשִׁפְחָ֑ה וָֽאֶשְׁלְחָה֙ לְהַגִּ֣יד לַֽאדֹנִ֔י לִמְצֹא ־ חֵ֖ן בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ ׃ 7 וַיָּשֻׁ֙בוּ֙ הַמַּלְאָכִ֔ים אֶֽל ־ יַעֲקֹ֖ב לֵאמֹ֑ר בָּ֤אנוּ אֶל ־ אָחִ֙יךָ֙ אֶל ־ עֵשָׂ֔ו וְגַם֙ הֹלֵ֣ךְ לִקְרָֽאתְךָ֔ וְאַרְבַּע ־ מֵא֥וֹת אִ֖ישׁ עִמּֽוֹ ׃ 8 וַיִּירָ֧א יַעֲקֹ֛ב מְאֹ֖ד וַיֵּ֣צֶר ל֑וֹ וַיַּ֜חַץ אֶת ־ הָעָ֣ם אֲשֶׁר ־ אִתּ֗וֹ וְאֶת ־ הַצֹּ֧אן וְאֶת ־ הַבָּקָ֛ר וְהַגְּמַלִּ֖ים לִשְׁנֵ֥י מַחֲנֽוֹת ׃ 9 וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אִם ־ יָב֥וֹא עֵשָׂ֛ו אֶל ־ הַמַּחֲנֶ֥ה הָאַחַ֖ת וְהִכָּ֑הוּ וְהָיָ֛ה הַמַּחֲנֶ֥ה הַנִּשְׁאָ֖ר לִפְלֵיטָֽה ׃ 10 וַיֹּאמֶר֮ יַעֲקֹב֒ אֱלֹהֵי֙ אָבִ֣י אַבְרָהָ֔ם וֵאלֹהֵ֖י אָבִ֣י יִצְחָ֑ק יְהוָ֞ה הָאֹמֵ֣ר אֵלַ֗י שׁ֧וּב לְאַרְצְךָ֛ וּלְמוֹלַדְתְּךָ֖ וְאֵיטִ֥יבָה עִמָּֽךְ ׃ 11 קָטֹ֜נְתִּי מִכֹּ֤ל הַחֲסָדִים֙ וּמִכָּל ־ הָ֣אֱמֶ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשִׂ֖יתָ אֶת ־ עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ כִּ֣י בְמַקְלִ֗י עָבַ֙רְתִּי֙ אֶת ־ הַיַּרְדֵּ֣ן הַזֶּ֔ה וְעַתָּ֥ה הָיִ֖יתִי לִשְׁנֵ֥י מַחֲנֽוֹת ׃ 12 הַצִּילֵ֥נִי נָ֛א מִיַּ֥ד אָחִ֖י מִיַּ֣ד עֵשָׂ֑ו כִּֽי ־ יָרֵ֤א אָנֹכִי֙ אֹת֔וֹ פֶּן ־ יָב֣וֹא וְהִכַּ֔נִי אֵ֖ם עַל ־ בָּנִֽים ׃ 13 וְאַתָּ֣ה אָמַ֔רְתָּ הֵיטֵ֥ב אֵיטִ֖יב עִמָּ֑ךְ וְשַׂמְתִּ֤י אֶֽת ־ זַרְעֲךָ֙ כְּח֣וֹל הַיָּ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא ־ יִסָּפֵ֖ר מֵרֹֽב ׃ 14 וַיָּ֥לֶן שָׁ֖ם בַּלַּ֣יְלָה הַה֑וּא וַיִּקַּ֞ח מִן ־ הַבָּ֧א בְיָד֛וֹ מִנְחָ֖ה לְעֵשָׂ֥ו אָחִֽיו ׃ 15 עִזִּ֣ים מָאתַ֔יִם וּתְיָשִׁ֖ים עֶשְׂרִ֑ים רְחֵלִ֥ים מָאתַ֖יִם וְאֵילִ֥ים עֶשְׂרִֽים ׃ 16 גְּמַלִּ֧ים מֵינִיק֛וֹת וּבְנֵיהֶ֖ם שְׁלֹשִׁ֑ים פָּר֤וֹת אַרְבָּעִים֙ וּפָרִ֣ים עֲשָׂרָ֔ה אֲתֹנֹ֣ת עֶשְׂרִ֔ים וַעְיָרִ֖ם 1 עֲשָׂרָֽה ׃ 17 וַיִּתֵּן֙ בְּיַד ־ עֲבָדָ֔יו עֵ֥דֶר עֵ֖דֶר לְבַדּ֑וֹ וַ֤יֹּאמֶר אֶל ־ עֲבָדָיו֙ עִבְר֣וּ לְפָנַ֔י וְרֶ֣וַח תָּשִׂ֔ימוּ בֵּ֥ין עֵ֖דֶר וּבֵ֥ין עֵֽדֶר ׃ 18 וַיְצַ֥ו אֶת ־ הָרִאשׁ֖וֹן לֵאמֹ֑ר כִּ֣י יִֽפְגָּשְׁךָ֞ 1 עֵשָׂ֣ו אָחִ֗י וִשְׁאֵֽלְךָ֙ 2 לֵאמֹ֔ר לְמִי ־ אַ֙תָּה֙ וְאָ֣נָה תֵלֵ֔ךְ וּלְמִ֖י אֵ֥לֶּה לְפָנֶֽיךָ ׃ 19 וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֙ לְעַבְדְּךָ֣ לְיַעֲקֹ֔ב מִנְחָ֥ה הִוא֙ שְׁלוּחָ֔ה לַֽאדֹנִ֖י לְעֵשָׂ֑ו וְהִנֵּ֥ה גַם ־ ה֖וּא אַחֲרֵֽינוּ ׃ 20 וַיְצַ֞ו גַּ֣ם אֶת ־ הַשֵּׁנִ֗י גַּ֚ם אֶת ־ הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֔י גַּ֚ם אֶת ־ כָּל ־ הַהֹ֣לְכִ֔ים אַחֲרֵ֥י הָעֲדָרִ֖ים לֵאמֹ֑ר כַּדָּבָ֤ר הַזֶּה֙ תְּדַבְּר֣וּן אֶל ־ עֵשָׂ֔ו בְּמֹצַאֲכֶ֖ם אֹתֽוֹ ׃ 21 וַאֲמַרְתֶּ֕ם גַּ֗ם הִנֵּ֛ה עַבְדְּךָ֥ יַעֲקֹ֖ב אַחֲרֵ֑ינוּ כִּֽי ־ אָמַ֞ר אֲכַפְּרָ֣ה פָנָ֗יו בַּמִּנְחָה֙ הַהֹלֶ֣כֶת לְפָנָ֔י וְאַחֲרֵי ־ כֵן֙ אֶרְאֶ֣ה פָנָ֔יו אוּלַ֖י יִשָּׂ֥א פָנָֽי ׃ 22 וַתַּעֲבֹ֥ר הַמִּנְחָ֖ה עַל ־ פָּנָ֑יו וְה֛וּא לָ֥ן בַּלַּֽיְלָה ־ הַה֖וּא בַּֽמַּחֲנֶֽה ׃ 23 וַיָּ֣קָם ׀ בַּלַּ֣יְלָה ה֗וּא וַיִּקַּ֞ח אֶת ־ שְׁתֵּ֤י נָשָׁיו֙ וְאֶת ־ שְׁתֵּ֣י שִׁפְחֹתָ֔יו וְאֶת ־ אַחַ֥ד עָשָׂ֖ר יְלָדָ֑יו וַֽיַּעֲבֹ֔ר אֵ֖ת מַעֲבַ֥ר יַבֹּֽק ׃ 24 וַיִּקָּחֵ֔ם וַיַּֽעֲבִרֵ֖ם אֶת ־ הַנָּ֑חַל וַֽיַּעֲבֵ֖ר אֶת ־ אֲשֶׁר ־ לוֹ 1 ׃ 25 וַיִּוָּתֵ֥ר יַעֲקֹ֖ב לְבַדּ֑וֹ וַיֵּאָבֵ֥ק אִישׁ֙ עִמּ֔וֹ עַ֖ד עֲל֥וֹת הַשָּֽׁחַר ׃ 26 וַיַּ֗רְא כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יָכֹל֙ ל֔וֹ וַיִּגַּ֖ע בְּכַף ־ יְרֵכ֑וֹ וַתֵּ֙קַע֙ כַּף ־ יֶ֣רֶךְ יַעֲקֹ֔ב בְּהֵֽאָבְק֖וֹ עִמּֽוֹ ׃ 27 וַיֹּ֣אמֶר שַׁלְּחֵ֔נִי כִּ֥י עָלָ֖ה הַשָּׁ֑חַר וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לֹ֣א אֲשַֽׁלֵּחֲךָ֔ כִּ֖י אִם ־ בֵּרַכְתָּֽנִי ׃ 28 וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו מַה ־ שְּׁמֶ֑ךָ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר יַעֲקֹֽב ׃ 29 וַיֹּ֗אמֶר לֹ֤א יַעֲקֹב֙ יֵאָמֵ֥ר עוֹד֙ שִׁמְךָ֔ כִּ֖י אִם ־ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל כִּֽי ־ שָׂרִ֧יתָ עִם ־ אֱלֹהִ֛ים וְעִם ־ אֲנָשִׁ֖ים וַתּוּכָֽל ׃ 30 וַיִּשְׁאַ֣ל יַעֲקֹ֗ב וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ הַגִּֽידָה ־ נָּ֣א שְׁמֶ֔ךָ וַיֹּ֕אמֶר לָ֥מָּה זֶּ֖ה תִּשְׁאַ֣ל לִשְׁמִ֑י וַיְבָ֥רֶךְ אֹת֖וֹ שָֽׁם ׃ 31 וַיִּקְרָ֧א יַעֲקֹ֛ב שֵׁ֥ם הַמָּק֖וֹם פְּנִיאֵ֑ל כִּֽי ־ רָאִ֤יתִי אֱלֹהִים֙ פָּנִ֣ים אֶל ־ פָּנִ֔ים וַתִּנָּצֵ֖ל נַפְשִֽׁי ׃ 32 וַיִּֽזְרַֽח ־ ל֣וֹ הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָבַ֖ר אֶת ־ פְּנוּאֵ֑ל וְה֥וּא צֹלֵ֖עַ עַל ־ יְרֵכֽוֹ ׃ 33 עַל ־ כֵּ֡ן לֹֽא ־ יֹאכְל֨וּ בְנֵֽי ־ יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל אֶת ־ גִּ֣יד הַנָּשֶׁ֗ה אֲשֶׁר֙ עַל ־ כַּ֣ף הַיָּרֵ֔ךְ עַ֖ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה כִּ֤י נָגַע֙ בְּכַף ־ יֶ֣רֶךְ יַעֲקֹ֔ב בְּגִ֖יד הַנָּשֶֽׁה ׃
Jacob becomes Israel Intro : Bethel was promise; Mahanaim/Peniel is fulfilment. Russian dolls; the central one. 1. Jacob prepares to meet Esau (v1-21) Jacob 'also' went his way; i.e. Laban returns to his place and Jacob to his. But Jacob's journey is book-ended by God's presence. The angels of God met him! They were scouting the area for Jacob. Straight after Laban, comes the meeting with Esau. The life of faith! In what sense is Jesus' yoke 'easy'? G reatly afraid, v6 [further applications...] 400 men is a lot of men; Esau has also done well during the 20-year separation. The greater the fears we face, the greater the grace. Grace is sufficient, and effective. v9 he has learned dependence on YHWH. 'steadfast love and faithfulness'. v10 he reflects back; only with my staff I crossed this river. H e appeals to God's promise. v9-12 pray appealing to God's own word. v10 your deeds of HESED (in plural form); intensity. [further applications...] v11 please deliver me, for I fear him; honest before God cf Genesis 28.13-15 ; God has fulfilled his pledge. One staff has become two mighty camps. 2. Jacob wrestles with God, who renames him 'Israel' (v22-32) Jabbok river - tributary of the Jordan, 15 miles north of the Dead Sea. Divides Gilead into two parts. MAP/PICTURE. v24 he is alone; the defining moments tend to happen alone. Why is he waiting behind alone? A coward? Hoping Esau will be at max sympathy by the time he reaches him? Or, to spare his household in case Esau got into a rage at the first. In any case he meets him first - possibly because Jacob has now become Israel after the big wrestle. Wrestling. He was all alone. A defining event of his existence. What are we to make of this? He strove with God and prevailed? Is this the sense of he insisted in the promise of God? Wrestling; God wrestles. God lets him win. Why? Now Jacob is 'branded', marked as his, and name changed. v25 touch, also is 'strike'. And cf angel striking Peter in Acts to wake him. Or the LORD 'attacking' Moses Exodus 4. 'Not safe, but good'. Jacob's victory at a permanent physical cost. ' Bless me'. Blessing secured at great physical cost. 'As the former 'Jacob', he had obtained his father's blessing by thievery; but in his tussle with God he sought the realisation of the blessing, knowing that only God could grant it'... 'Since this is God's messenger, Jacob has his opportunity to obtain the blessing from God that had escaped him until now, for he had only received his father's blessing and that was given unwittingly.' Jacob can't 'achieve' the blessing through physical strength. Rather, purely rests on the freedom of God to give his blessing. Physical strength has characterised Jacob's life; grasping the heel, moving the stone. Working 20 years in difficult conditions. Yet now that very strength will be turned to weakness. And through that weakness he will be a morally converted man. 'Israel' emphasises that God initiated the struggle, and the man's explanation emphasises the outcome. No other person could rightly hold the name 'Israel'. v30 delivered, 'was spared' (niphal) - Jacob knows he lived only because God's grace preserved him. Peniel, face of God. The journey from coward - pragmatist - courageous humility. 'Jacob is now made morally ready to carry out the blessing he carries. He must possess his own faith, obtaining the blessing through personal encounter not mere heredity.' Glory of God : Utterly faithful to bless. The contrast here between promise and fulfilment. The fulfilment way better than hoped. Faithful to train and mature his people in their faith, even through refining. FCF . Fear lingers on. There are deeper and deeper layers of mistrust in God. Person of Jesus . He is the face of God. Comes to his people in their hour of need. He needs no new name, since he is Jesus. Who is this man wrestling with Jacob? Hidden, perplexing, enigmatic, intriguing. Cf the other divine appearances of God in the OT. But now, in Jesus, God is revealed, explained, narrated, exegeted. John 1.14 Work of Jesus . He is willingly overcome by human violence, to death. In order that the greatest fulfilment might be guaranteed for his people. They come to him with swords and clubs and he does not resist them. He bears on his body the marks it took to secure blessing for his people. Union with Jesus . I see the face of God's favour by faith now, and I will by sight. I am bought as his. He will give us new names. We rarely think about this; to be so fully, truly known. I receive all fear and hardship in this life as a refining gift from his hand, to purify me in my faith, and to make me into what I already am (his Son). Wrap-up: 'God will not use what he hasn't first broken'. cf Leading with a limp.