Daniel’s Vision of the Four Beasts 7 1 In the first year of p Belshazzar king of Babylon, q Daniel saw a dream and r visions of his head as he lay in his bed. Then he wrote down the dream and told the sum of the matter. 2 Daniel declared, 1 “I saw in my vision by night, and behold, s the four winds of heaven were stirring up the great sea. 3 And four great beasts t came up out of the sea, different from one another. 4 The first was like a lion and had eagles’ wings. Then as I looked its wings were plucked off, and it was lifted up from the ground and made to stand on two feet like a man, and the mind of a man was given to it. 5 And behold, u another beast, a second one, like a bear. It was raised up on one side. It had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth; and it was told, ‘Arise, devour much flesh.’ 6 After this I looked, and behold, another, like a v leopard, with four wings of a bird on its back. And the beast had four heads, and w dominion was given to it. 7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold, a fourth beast, x terrifying and dreadful and exceedingly strong. It had great iron teeth; x it devoured and broke in pieces x and stamped what was left with its feet. It was different from all the beasts that were before it, and y it had ten horns. 8 I considered the horns, and behold, z there came up among them another horn, a little one, z before which three of the first horns were plucked up by the roots. And behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a a mouth speaking great things. The Ancient of Days Reigns 9 “As I looked, b thrones were placed, and the c Ancient of Days took his seat; d his clothing was white as snow, and e the hair of his head like pure wool; his throne was fiery flames; f its wheels were burning fire. 10 g A stream of fire issued and came out from before him; h a thousand thousands i served him, h and ten thousand times ten thousand j stood before him; the k court sat in judgment, and l the books were opened. 11 “I looked then because of the sound of a the great words that the horn was speaking. And as I looked, m the beast was killed, and its body destroyed m and given over to be burned with fire. 12 As for the rest of the beasts, n their dominion was taken away, but their lives were prolonged for a season and a time. The Son of Man Is Given Dominion 13 “I saw in the night visions, and o behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the c Ancient of Days and was presented before him. 14 p And to him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all q peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; r his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed. Daniel’s Vision Interpreted 15 “As for me, Daniel, my spirit within me 1 was anxious, and s the visions of my head alarmed me. 16 I approached one of those who stood there and asked him the truth concerning all this. So he told me and made known to me the interpretation of the things. 17 t ‘These four great beasts are four kings who shall arise out of the earth. 18 But u the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom and possess the kingdom forever, forever and ever.’ 19 “Then I desired to know the truth about v the fourth beast, which was different from all the rest, exceedingly terrifying, with its teeth of iron and claws of bronze, and which devoured and broke in pieces and stamped what was left with its feet, 20 w and about the ten horns that were on its head, and the other horn that came up and before which three of them fell, the horn that had eyes and a mouth that spoke great things, and that seemed greater than its companions. 21 As I looked, this horn x made war with the saints and prevailed over them, 22 until the y Ancient of Days came, and u judgment was given for the saints of the Most High, and the time came when u the saints possessed the kingdom. 23 “Thus he said: ‘As for v the fourth beast, there shall be a fourth kingdom on earth, which shall be different from all the kingdoms, and it shall devour the whole earth, and trample it down, and break it to pieces. 24 As for the ten horns, out of this kingdom ten kings shall arise, and another shall arise after them; he shall be different from the former ones, and shall put down three kings. 25 z He shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and shall think to a change the times and the law; and they shall be given into his hand for b a time, times, and half a time. 26 c But the court shall sit in judgment, and d his dominion shall be taken away, to be consumed and destroyed e to the end. 27 f And the kingdom and the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven shall be given to the people of f the saints of the Most High; g his kingdom shall be an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.’ 1 28 “Here is the end of the matter. h As for me, Daniel, my i thoughts greatly alarmed me, j and my color changed, but k I kept the matter in my heart.”
7 1 בִּשְׁנַ֣ת חֲדָ֗ה לְבֵלְאשַׁצַּר֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ בָּבֶ֔ל דָּנִיֵּאל֙ חֵ֣לֶם חֲזָ֔ה וְחֶזְוֵ֥י רֵאשֵׁ֖הּ עַֽל ־ מִשְׁכְּבֵ֑הּ בֵּאדַ֙יִן֙ חֶלְמָ֣א כְתַ֔ב רֵ֥אשׁ מִלִּ֖ין אֲמַֽר ׃ 2 עָנֵ֤ה דָנִיֵּאל֙ וְאָמַ֔ר חָזֵ֥ה הֲוֵ֛ית בְּחֶזְוִ֖י עִם ־ לֵֽילְיָ֑א וַאֲר֗וּ אַרְבַּע֙ רוּחֵ֣י שְׁמַיָּ֔א מְגִיחָ֖ן לְיַמָּ֥א רַבָּֽא ׃ 3 וְאַרְבַּ֤ע חֵיוָן֙ רַבְרְבָ֔ן סָלְקָ֖ן מִן ־ יַמָּ֑א שָׁנְיָ֖ן דָּ֥א מִן ־ דָּֽא ׃ 4 קַדְמָיְתָ֣א כְאַרְיֵ֔ה וְגַפִּ֥ין דִּֽי ־ נְשַׁ֖ר לַ֑הּ חָזֵ֣ה הֲוֵ֡ית עַד֩ דִּי ־ מְּרִ֨יטוּ גַפַּ֜יהּ וּנְטִ֣ילַת מִן ־ אַרְעָ֗א וְעַל ־ רַגְלַ֙יִן֙ כֶּאֱנָ֣שׁ הֳקִימַ֔ת וּלְבַ֥ב אֱנָ֖שׁ יְהִ֥יב לַֽהּ ׃ 5 וַאֲר֣וּ חֵיוָה֩ אָחֳרִ֨י תִנְיָנָ֜ה דָּמְיָ֣ה לְדֹ֗ב וְלִשְׂטַר ־ חַד֙ הֳקִמַ֔ת וּתְלָ֥ת עִלְעִ֛ין בְּפֻמַּ֖הּ בֵּ֣ין שניה 1 וְכֵן֙ אָמְרִ֣ין לַ֔הּ ק֥וּמִֽי אֲכֻ֖לִי בְּשַׂ֥ר שַׂגִּֽיא ׃ 6 בָּאתַ֨ר דְּנָ֜ה חָזֵ֣ה הֲוֵ֗ית וַאֲר֤וּ אָֽחֳרִי֙ כִּנְמַ֔ר וְלַ֨הּ גַּפִּ֥ין אַרְבַּ֛ע דִּי ־ ע֖וֹף עַל ־ גביה 1 וְאַרְבְּעָ֤ה רֵאשִׁין֙ לְחֵ֣יוְתָ֔א וְשָׁלְטָ֖ן יְהִ֥יב לַֽהּ ׃ 7 בָּאתַ֣ר דְּנָה֩ חָזֵ֨ה הֲוֵ֜ית בְּחֶזְוֵ֣י לֵֽילְיָ֗א וַאֲר֣וּ חֵיוָ֣ה רביעיה 1 דְּחִילָה֩ וְאֵֽימְתָנִ֨י וְתַקִּיפָ֜א יַתִּ֗ירָא וְשִׁנַּ֨יִן דִּֽי ־ פַרְזֶ֥ל לַהּ֙ רַבְרְבָ֔ן אָֽכְלָ֣ה וּמַדֱּקָ֔ה וּשְׁאָרָ֖א ברגליה 2 רָפְסָ֑ה וְהִ֣יא מְשַׁנְּיָ֗ה מִן ־ כָּל ־ חֵֽיוָתָא֙ דִּ֣י קָֽדָמַ֔יהּ וְקַרְנַ֥יִן עֲשַׂ֖ר לַֽהּ ׃ 8 מִשְׂתַּכַּ֨ל הֲוֵ֜ית בְּקַרְנַיָּ֗א וַ֠אֲלוּ קֶ֣רֶן אָחֳרִ֤י זְעֵירָה֙ סִלְקָ֣ת ביניהון 1 וּתְלָ֗ת מִן ־ קַרְנַיָּא֙ קַדְמָ֣יָתָ֔א אתעקרו 2 מִן ־ קדמיה 3 וַאֲל֨וּ עַיְנִ֜ין כְּעַיְנֵ֤י אֲנָשָׁא֙ בְּקַרְנָא ־ דָ֔א וּפֻ֖ם מְמַלִּ֥ל רַבְרְבָֽן ׃ 9 חָזֵ֣ה הֲוֵ֗ית עַ֣ד דִּ֤י כָרְסָוָן֙ רְמִ֔יו וְעַתִּ֥יק יוֹמִ֖ין יְתִ֑ב לְבוּשֵׁ֣הּ ׀ כִּתְלַ֣ג חִוָּ֗ר וּשְׂעַ֤ר רֵאשֵׁהּ֙ כַּעֲמַ֣ר נְקֵ֔א כָּרְסְיֵהּ֙ שְׁבִיבִ֣ין דִּי ־ נ֔וּר גַּלְגִּלּ֖וֹהִי נ֥וּר דָּלִֽק ׃ 10 נְהַ֣ר דִּי ־ נ֗וּר נָגֵ֤ד וְנָפֵק֙ מִן ־ קֳדָמ֔וֹהִי אֶ֤לֶף אלפים 1 יְשַׁמְּשׁוּנֵּ֔הּ וְרִבּ֥וֹ רבון 2 קָֽדָמ֣וֹהִי יְקוּמ֑וּן דִּינָ֥א יְתִ֖ב וְסִפְרִ֥ין פְּתִֽיחוּ ׃ 11 חָזֵ֣ה הֲוֵ֔ית בֵּאדַ֗יִן מִן ־ קָל֙ מִלַּיָּ֣א רַבְרְבָתָ֔א דִּ֥י קַרְנָ֖א מְמַלֱּלָ֑ה חָזֵ֣ה הֲוֵ֡ית עַד֩ דִּ֨י קְטִילַ֤ת חֵֽיוְתָא֙ וְהוּבַ֣ד גִּשְׁמַ֔הּ וִיהִיבַ֖ת לִיקֵדַ֥ת אֶשָּֽׁא ׃ 12 וּשְׁאָר֙ חֵֽיוָתָ֔א הֶעְדִּ֖יו שָׁלְטָנְה֑וֹן וְאַרְכָ֧ה בְחַיִּ֛ין יְהִ֥יבַת לְה֖וֹן עַד ־ זְמַ֥ן וְעִדָּֽן ׃ 13 חָזֵ֤ה הֲוֵית֙ בְּחֶזְוֵ֣י לֵֽילְיָ֔א וַאֲרוּ֙ עִם ־ עֲנָנֵ֣י שְׁמַיָּ֔א כְּבַ֥ר אֱנָ֖שׁ אָתֵ֣ה הֲוָ֑ה וְעַד ־ עַתִּ֤יק יֽוֹמַיָּא֙ מְטָ֔ה וּקְדָמ֖וֹהִי הַקְרְבֽוּהִי ׃ 14 וְלֵ֨הּ יְהִ֤יב שָׁלְטָן֙ וִיקָ֣ר וּמַלְכ֔וּ וְכֹ֣ל עַֽמְמַיָּ֗א אֻמַיָּ֛א וְלִשָּׁנַיָּ֖א לֵ֣הּ יִפְלְח֑וּן שָׁלְטָנֵ֞הּ שָׁלְטָ֤ן עָלַם֙ דִּֽי ־ לָ֣א יֶעְדֵּ֔ה וּמַלְכוּתֵ֖הּ דִּי ־ לָ֥א תִתְחַבַּֽל ׃ פ 15 אֶתְכְּרִיַּ֥ת רוּחִ֛י אֲנָ֥ה דָנִיֵּ֖אל בְּג֣וֹא נִדְנֶ֑ה וְחֶזְוֵ֥י רֵאשִׁ֖י יְבַהֲלֻנַּֽנִי ׃ 16 קִרְבֵ֗ת עַל ־ חַד֙ מִן ־ קָ֣אֲמַיָּ֔א וְיַצִּיבָ֥א אֶבְעֵֽא ־ מִנֵּ֖הּ עַֽל ־ כָּל ־ דְּנָ֑ה וַאֲמַר ־ לִ֕י וּפְשַׁ֥ר מִלַּיָּ֖א יְהוֹדְעִנַּֽנִי ׃ 17 אִלֵּין֙ חֵיוָתָ֣א רַבְרְבָתָ֔א דִּ֥י אִנִּ֖ין אַרְבַּ֑ע אַרְבְּעָ֥ה מַלְכִ֖ין יְקוּמ֥וּן מִן ־ אַרְעָֽא ׃ 18 וִֽיקַבְּלוּן֙ מַלְכוּתָ֔א קַדִּישֵׁ֖י עֶלְיוֹנִ֑ין וְיַחְסְנ֤וּן מַלְכוּתָא֙ עַֽד ־ עָ֣לְמָ֔א וְעַ֖ד עָלַ֥ם עָלְמַיָּֽא ׃ 19 אֱדַ֗יִן צְבִית֙ לְיַצָּבָ֔א עַל ־ חֵֽיוְתָא֙ רְבִיעָ֣יְתָ֔א דִּֽי ־ הֲוָ֥ת שָֽׁנְיָ֖ה מִן ־ כלהון 1 דְּחִילָ֣ה יַתִּ֗ירָה שניה 2 דִּֽי ־ פַרְזֶל֙ וְטִפְרַ֣יהּ דִּֽי ־ נְחָ֔שׁ אָֽכְלָ֣ה מַדֲּקָ֔ה וּשְׁאָרָ֖א בְּרַגְלַ֥יהּ 3 רָֽפְסָֽה ׃ 20 וְעַל ־ קַרְנַיָּ֤א עֲשַׂר֙ דִּ֣י בְרֵאשַׁ֔הּ וְאָחֳרִי֙ דִּ֣י סִלְקַ֔ת ונפלו 1 מִן ־ קדמיה 2 תְּלָ֑ת וְקַרְנָ֨א דִכֵּ֜ן וְעַיְנִ֣ין לַ֗הּ וְפֻם֙ מְמַלִּ֣ל רַבְרְבָ֔ן וְחֶזְוַ֖הּ רַ֥ב מִן ־ חַבְרָתַֽהּ ׃ 21 חָזֵ֣ה הֲוֵ֔ית וְקַרְנָ֣א דִכֵּ֔ן עָבְדָ֥ה קְרָ֖ב עִם ־ קַדִּישִׁ֑ין וְיָכְלָ֖ה לְהֽוֹן ׃ 22 עַ֣ד דִּֽי ־ אֲתָ֗ה 1 עַתִּיק֙ יֽוֹמַיָּ֔א וְדִינָ֣א יְהִ֔ב לְקַדִּישֵׁ֖י עֶלְיוֹנִ֑ין וְזִמְנָ֣א מְטָ֔ה וּמַלְכוּתָ֖א הֶחֱסִ֥נוּ קַדִּישִֽׁין ׃ 23 כֵּן֮ אֲמַר֒ חֵֽיוְתָא֙ רְבִיעָ֣יְתָ֔א מַלְכ֤וּ רביעיא 1 תֶּהֱוֵ֣א בְאַרְעָ֔א דִּ֥י תִשְׁנֵ֖א מִן ־ כָּל ־ מַלְכְוָתָ֑א וְתֵאכֻל֙ כָּל ־ אַרְעָ֔א וּתְדוּשִׁנַּ֖הּ וְתַדְּקִנַּֽהּ ׃ 24 וְקַרְנַיָּ֣א עֲשַׂ֔ר מִנַּהּ֙ מַלְכוּתָ֔ה עַשְׂרָ֥ה מַלְכִ֖ין יְקֻמ֑וּן וְאָחֳרָ֞ן יְק֣וּם אַחֲרֵיה֗וֹן וְה֤וּא יִשְׁנֵא֙ מִן ־ קַדְמָיֵ֔א וּתְלָתָ֥ה מַלְכִ֖ין יְהַשְׁפִּֽל ׃ 25 וּמִלִּ֗ין לְצַ֤ד עליא 1 יְמַלִּ֔ל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁ֥י עֶלְיוֹנִ֖ין יְבַלֵּ֑א וְיִסְבַּ֗ר לְהַשְׁנָיָה֙ זִמְנִ֣ין וְדָ֔ת וְיִתְיַהֲב֣וּן בִּידֵ֔הּ עַד ־ עִדָּ֥ן וְעִדָּנִ֖ין וּפְלַ֥ג עִדָּֽן ׃ 26 וְדִינָ֖א יִתִּ֑ב וְשָׁלְטָנֵ֣הּ יְהַעְדּ֔וֹן לְהַשְׁמָדָ֥ה וּלְהוֹבָדָ֖ה עַד ־ סוֹפָֽא ׃ 27 וּמַלְכוּתָ֨ה וְשָׁלְטָנָ֜א וּרְבוּתָ֗א דִּ֚י מַלְכְוָת֙ תְּח֣וֹת כָּל ־ שְׁמַיָּ֔א יְהִיבַ֕ת לְעַ֖ם קַדִּישֵׁ֣י עֶלְיוֹנִ֑ין מַלְכוּתֵהּ֙ מַלְכ֣וּת עָלַ֔ם וְכֹל֙ שָׁלְטָ֣נַיָּ֔א לֵ֥הּ יִפְלְח֖וּן וְיִֽשְׁתַּמְּעֽוּן ׃ 28 עַד ־ כָּ֖ה סוֹפָ֣א דִֽי ־ מִלְּתָ֑א אֲנָ֨ה דָֽנִיֵּ֜אל שַׂגִּ֣יא ׀ רַעְיוֹנַ֣י יְבַהֲלֻנַּ֗נִי וְזִיוַי֙ יִשְׁתַּנּ֣וֹן עֲלַ֔י וּמִלְּתָ֖א בְּלִבִּ֥י נִטְרֵֽת ׃ פ
God has established his eternal Kingdom in Jesus Introduction A word of warning on the particular perils of eschatology. Dangers of reductionism with regards the kingdom. Eschatology makes people proud; I have the inner secret and you don't. Makes people frustrated with the church, since it doesn't seem to 'get' what they get. Two or three times I've had people actually contact me out of the blue offering to teach people...and it's always about eschatology. And, danger of trying to find a canon within the canon, to justify our preferred brand of what 'kingdom' means. We are to be w ise participants in history, not proud predictors. A word on the particular glory of eschatology, and what we mean by 'apocalyptic' - how we talk about things to great for words. Aramaic. Turning point in the book. The NT has 3 times as many allusions and parallels to the second half than the first. Actually, 1-6 lays the groundwork for 7-12. Let's follow the Bible's own trajectory. 1. The kingdoms of this world are actually 'beastly' v1. When: how 7-12 relate to 1-6. Belshazzar; shortly will die. Parallel to chapter 2 (when Daniel was young). v2. Four winds and the sea. All directions; what is happening on earth happens by decree from heaven. v3-4. First beast. Babylon; Jeremiah, Ezekiel, lion and eagle imagery. Also Ishtar gate. Changed, more humane - Neb? v5. Second. Double kingdom medes and persians (cf chapter 6). Still wanting to expand; devour much flesh. Victims. v6. Third. Leopard, very fast and powerful. Alexander lamented there was no more to conquer. Yet received dominion, did not achieve it. v7-8 Fourth beast and horns. Not given animal description. Emphasis on ability to conquer. There aren't ten neat and tidy, clearly agreed kings from Greece or Rome; that's not the point. Speaking great things, ie speaking boastfully. v9-10 The court ready for judgement v11-12 Judgement. Little horn doesn't stop speaking, v11! Even though judgement is coming. Their times defined, prolonged, but brought to an end. Application Humanism actually becomes sub-humanism. When we rule without God, we become beast-ly. The horror of godlessness. Beastliness of human kingdoms. Often masked. But cf le Carre; showing how capitalist west does the same as communist east; demanding loss of the individual for the supposed benefit of the many. More like Bourne than Bond. Evil murky corridors of power influencing human agents who will take blame and responsibility. Go too far on this and you end at conspiracy theories; these are inadequate because they divide into good guys (ie the poor common man) and bad guys (those in power). But the 'hornly-ness' is a human heart thing. Ishtar gate at the Pergamon museum in Berlin, which had been intended as a glorious 'German Museum'. It also holds the Pergamon altar, which is in Revelation 'throne of Satan'. Antipas, martyred by burning. Hitler had the altar rebuilt, and from it announced the 'final solution'. Point is, there is manifestation after manifestation of the beast and particular horn. Doing the same kind of things. When humanity abandons God, it doesn't become more free and beautiful and creative, it becomes more beastly and predictable. cf today, new interest in ancient pantheon and practices. Going back to paganism. The good news of the judgement of God. Glory of God: He rules over the beastly tyranny of planet earth, and will hold all to account. We identify with the chewed up ribs; suffering. We identify with the little horn; pride. FCF: We fear the terrible powers, and so disbelieve God. And we become tyrants ourselves as we reject his rule, and take matters into our own hands (even Christian ways). Books are opened, unhindered by secrecy and privacy. cf Paranoia and cloak and dagger. Intentions, secret words. Always lie there behind power. There is a higher throne, which - like a tragic pantomime - people and kingdoms ignore. But we have been declared righteous before that Throne. 2. God's Kingdom is not of this world, and has been given to Jesus, who rules over all for the good of his people v13-14 Kingdom given to the son of Man. Here is True Man, not man-become-beast. Here is Man able to stand and dwell in God's presence. Here is Psalm 24 or Psalm 15 . Here is Jesus! Now is the ruler of this world cast out. Satan is already bound. Person of Christ: Here is your King! Behold the man, behold your king! 'Look, Adam!' Here is the true son of Adam. v13-14 is Jesus coming into the Father's presence at his resurrection/ascension. He has just spoken with his mother in the garden; I am ascending. v15-18 Despite the human kingdoms, God's people will possess the kingdom forever. Work of Christ: through his suffering of the beast, he destroyed the beast. Through his awful enthronement, he achieved his glory enthronement. v18 comes as a surprise; the saints are given the kingdom?! The fact that the Son of Man has gone into the throne room is the guarantee that we have and will receive the kingdom. Given as head over all to the church (Ephesians 1). v19-27 Despite their suffering, God's people will possess the Kingdom forever. 19-22 is repeated in 23-27. Rome and all history since, with a particular little horn - in types but the full extent still to come. Signifying a period following the roman empire. This is the kingdom of man until the return of Christ. And then comes a little horn, speaking blapshemous horn. Antichrist. So, Roman empire, then long following period, then a little horn. It's not specific enough to say for sure! But there'll be precursors; we can identify the work of the little horn. But there will be a point of particular intensification. 10 kingdoms - ie all human kingdoms. But horn-ly-ness is the particularly strong powers who dominate for a season, eg the Stalins and Hitlers. Boasting and pride more fully unleashed. People have pointed to Turks, the Papacy, Napoleon, Mussolini, Hitler, Stalin, the EU, etc. Arguably, all are types. eg redefine right and wrong, and change the times [Soviet/NHS], o r marriage re-definition . Application That which is human is temporal - all the kingdoms arose from the sea and tried to be worldwide, universal. They each sought to conquer more than the previous. Stems from deep pride. 'Russia is the third Reich's eternal friend'. But God's kingdom eternal because its origins are divine. Irruption. And, his kingdom is truly a universal one! People from every tribe and language. Time, times and half a time; theological, not chronological. Appearing to be an exponentially growing sequence which is suddenly stripped back. 3 and a half. 42 months. cf James 5.17 ; Luke 4.25 (why did they give that detail?). Elijah becomes the template. Also the later Maccabean (?) time. Feeling crushed? Despairing? Normal. Exhausted swimmer, exhausted cyclist. The cross-shaped life. This really is a present evil age. How does the Kingdom grow? What should we expect? Matthew 13; Luke 17; Acts 15; Amos 9. cf post-mil: God re-asserts his rule on unruly human history. Not something we achieve, but which he asserts. cf the cross, defeating the Sol Invictus. And the centurion's confession. cf pre-mil: The death blow has ALREADY been struck to the powers of evil. A vision of the throne room changes everything. Even more so, a vision of ourselves there in Christ right now. How all of this is re-stated in Revelation (especially 11-13): beast, horns, 42 months. Union with Christ: already received the Kingdom in him. Already share in his rule; his kingdom. Wherever I am, and whatever I do, an agent of the king. Courage yet in the face of fear; hope yet in the face of despair, since he rules history. Conclusion Stay awake. cf Luke 17. Look at the cross and empty tomb and abound in hope. Enjoy life in the kingdom now with perseverance, awaiting the fullness still to come.