Daniel 1 1 בִּשְׁנַ֣ת שָׁל֔וֹשׁ לְמַלְכ֖וּת יְהוֹיָקִ֣ים מֶֽלֶךְ ־ יְהוּדָ֑ה בָּ֣א נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּ֧ר מֶֽלֶךְ ־ בָּבֶ֛ל יְרוּשָׁלִַ֖ם וַיָּ֥צַר עָלֶֽיהָ ׃ 2 וַיִּתֵּן֩ אֲדֹנָ֨י בְּיָד֜וֹ אֶת ־ יְהוֹיָקִ֣ים מֶֽלֶךְ ־ יְהוּדָ֗ה וּמִקְצָת֙ כְּלֵ֣י בֵית ־ הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים וַיְבִיאֵ֥ם אֶֽרֶץ ־ שִׁנְעָ֖ר בֵּ֣ית אֱלֹהָ֑יו וְאֶת ־ הַכֵּלִ֣ים הֵבִ֔יא בֵּ֖ית אוֹצַ֥ר אֱלֹהָֽיו ׃ 3 וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ לְאַשְׁפְּנַ֖ז רַ֣ב סָרִיסָ֑יו לְהָבִ֞יא מִבְּנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל וּמִזֶּ֥רַע הַמְּלוּכָ֖ה וּמִן ־ הַֽפַּרְתְּמִֽים ׃ 4 יְלָדִ֣ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֵֽין ־ בָּהֶ֣ם כָּל ־ מאום 1 וְטוֹבֵ֨י מַרְאֶ֜ה וּמַשְׂכִּילִ֣ים בְּכָל ־ חָכְמָ֗ה וְיֹ֤דְעֵי דַ֙עַת֙ וּמְבִינֵ֣י מַדָּ֔ע וַאֲשֶׁר֙ כֹּ֣חַ בָּהֶ֔ם לַעֲמֹ֖ד בְּהֵיכַ֣ל הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וּֽלֲלַמְּדָ֥ם סֵ֖פֶר וּלְשׁ֥וֹן כַּשְׂדִּֽים ׃ 5 וַיְמַן֩ לָהֶ֨ם הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ דְּבַר ־ י֣וֹם בְּיוֹמ֗וֹ מִפַּת ־ בַּ֤ג הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ וּמִיֵּ֣ין מִשְׁתָּ֔יו וּֽלְגַדְּלָ֖ם שָׁנִ֣ים שָׁל֑וֹשׁ וּמִ֨קְצָתָ֔ם יַֽעַמְד֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ ׃ 6 וַיְהִ֥י בָהֶ֖ם מִבְּנֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֑ה דָּנִיֵּ֣אל חֲנַנְיָ֔ה מִֽישָׁאֵ֖ל וַעֲזַרְיָֽה ׃ 7 וַיָּ֧שֶׂם לָהֶ֛ם שַׂ֥ר הַסָּרִיסִ֖ים שֵׁמ֑וֹת וַיָּ֨שֶׂם לְדָֽנִיֵּ֜אל בֵּ֣לְטְשַׁאצַּ֗ר וְלַֽחֲנַנְיָה֙ שַׁדְרַ֔ךְ וּלְמִֽישָׁאֵ֣ל מֵישַׁ֔ךְ וְלַעֲזַרְיָ֖ה עֲבֵ֥ד נְגֽוֹ ׃ 8 וַיָּ֤שֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל֙ עַל ־ לִבּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹֽא ־ יִתְגָּאַ֛ל בְּפַתְבַּ֥ג הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וּבְיֵ֣ין מִשְׁתָּ֑יו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ֙ מִשַּׂ֣ר הַסָּרִיסִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֥א יִתְגָּאָֽל ׃ 9 וַיִּתֵּ֤ן הָֽאֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת ־ דָּ֣נִיֵּ֔אל לְחֶ֖סֶד וּֽלְרַחֲמִ֑ים לִפְנֵ֖י שַׂ֥ר הַסָּרִיסִֽים ׃ 10 וַיֹּ֜אמֶר שַׂ֤ר הַסָּרִיסִים֙ לְדָ֣נִיֵּ֔אל יָרֵ֤א אֲנִי֙ אֶת ־ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֣ר מִנָּ֔ה אֶת ־ מַאֲכַלְכֶ֖ם וְאֶת ־ מִשְׁתֵּיכֶ֑ם אֲשֶׁ֡ר לָמָּה֩ יִרְאֶ֨ה אֶת ־ פְּנֵיכֶ֜ם זֹֽעֲפִ֗ים מִן ־ הַיְלָדִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר כְּגִֽילְכֶ֔ם וְחִיַּבְתֶּ֥ם אֶת ־ רֹאשִׁ֖י לַמֶּֽלֶךְ ׃ 11 וַיֹּ֥אמֶר דָּנִיֵּ֖אל אֶל ־ הַמֶּלְצַ֑ר אֲשֶׁ֤ר מִנָּה֙ שַׂ֣ר הַסָּֽרִיסִ֔ים עַל ־ דָּנִיֵּ֣אל חֲנַנְיָ֔ה מִֽישָׁאֵ֖ל וַעֲזַרְיָֽה ׃ 12 נַס ־ נָ֥א אֶת ־ עֲבָדֶ֖יךָ יָמִ֣ים עֲשָׂרָ֑ה וְיִתְּנוּ ־ לָ֜נוּ מִן ־ הַזֵּרֹעִ֛ים וְנֹאכְלָ֖ה וּמַ֥יִם וְנִשְׁתֶּֽה ׃ 13 וְיֵרָא֤וּ לְפָנֶ֙יךָ֙ מַרְאֵ֔ינוּ וּמַרְאֵה֙ הַיְלָדִ֔ים הָאֹ֣כְלִ֔ים אֵ֖ת פַּתְבַּ֣ג הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּרְאֵ֔ה עֲשֵׂ֖ה עִם ־ עֲבָדֶֽיךָ ׃ 14 וַיִּשְׁמַ֥ע לָהֶ֖ם לַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה וַיְנַסֵּ֖ם יָמִ֥ים עֲשָׂרָֽה ׃ 15 וּמִקְצָת֙ יָמִ֣ים עֲשָׂרָ֔ה נִרְאָ֤ה מַרְאֵיהֶם֙ ט֔וֹב וּבְרִיאֵ֖י בָּשָׂ֑ר מִן ־ כָּל ־ הַיְלָדִ֔ים הָאֹ֣כְלִ֔ים אֵ֖ת פַּתְבַּ֥ג הַמֶּֽלֶךְ ׃ 16 וַיְהִ֣י הַמֶּלְצַ֗ר נֹשֵׂא֙ אֶת ־ פַּתְבָּגָ֔ם וְיֵ֖ין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶ֑ם וְנֹתֵ֥ן לָהֶ֖ם זֵרְעֹנִֽים ׃ 17 וְהַיְלָדִ֤ים הָאֵ֙לֶּה֙ אַרְבַּעְתָּ֔ם נָתַ֨ן לָהֶ֧ם הָֽאֱלֹהִ֛ים מַדָּ֥ע וְהַשְׂכֵּ֖ל בְּכָל ־ סֵ֣פֶר וְחָכְמָ֑ה וְדָנִיֵּ֣אל הֵבִ֔ין בְּכָל ־ חָז֖וֹן וַחֲלֹמֽוֹת ׃ 18 וּלְמִקְצָת֙ הַיָּמִ֔ים אֲשֶׁר ־ אָמַ֥ר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ לַהֲבִיאָ֑ם וַיְבִיאֵם֙ שַׂ֣ר הַסָּרִיסִ֔ים לִפְנֵ֖י נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּֽר ׃ 19 וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר אִתָּם֮ הַמֶּלֶךְ֒ וְלֹ֤א נִמְצָא֙ מִכֻּלָּ֔ם כְּדָנִיֵּ֣אל חֲנַנְיָ֔ה מִֽישָׁאֵ֖ל וַעֲזַרְיָ֑ה וַיַּֽעַמְד֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ ׃ 20 וְכֹ֗ל דְּבַר֙ חָכְמַ֣ת בִּינָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר ־ בִּקֵּ֥שׁ מֵהֶ֖ם הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַֽיִּמְצָאֵ֞ם עֶ֣שֶׂר יָד֗וֹת עַ֤ל כָּל ־ הַֽחַרְטֻמִּים֙ הָֽאַשָּׁפִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּכָל ־ מַלְכוּתֽוֹ ׃ 21 וַֽיְהִי֙ דָּֽנִיֵּ֔אל עַד ־ שְׁנַ֥ת אַחַ֖ת לְכ֥וֹרֶשׁ הַמֶּֽלֶךְ ׃ פ
Daniel Daniel Taken to Babylon 1 1 In the third year of a the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it. 2 And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with some of b the vessels of the house of God. And he brought them to c the land of Shinar, to the house of his god, d and placed the vessels in the treasury of his god. 3 Then the king commanded Ashpenaz, e his chief eunuch, to bring some of the people of Israel, both of the royal family 1 and of f the nobility, 4 youths without g blemish, of good appearance and h skillful in all wisdom, endowed with knowledge, understanding learning, and competent to stand in the king’s palace, and to i teach them the literature and language of the j Chaldeans. 5 The king assigned them a daily portion of k the food that the king ate, and of l the wine that he drank. They were to be educated for m three years, and at the end of that time they were to n stand before the king. 6 Among these were o Daniel, p Hananiah, p Mishael, and p Azariah of the tribe of Judah. 7 And e the chief of the eunuchs q gave them names: r Daniel he called Belteshazzar, Hananiah he called Shadrach, Mishael he called Meshach, and Azariah he called Abednego. Daniel’s Faithfulness 8 But Daniel s resolved that he would not t defile himself with k the king’s food, or with l the wine that he drank. Therefore he asked the chief of the eunuchs to allow him not to t defile himself. 9 u And God gave Daniel favor and compassion in the sight of the chief of the eunuchs, 10 and the chief of the eunuchs said to Daniel, “I fear my lord the king, who assigned your food and your drink; for why should he see that you were in worse condition than the youths who are of your own age? So you would endanger my head with the king.” 11 Then Daniel said to the steward whom the chief of the eunuchs had assigned over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, 12 “Test your servants for v ten days; let us be given vegetables to eat and water to drink. 13 Then let our appearance and the appearance of the youths who eat k the king’s food be observed by you, and deal with your servants according to what you see.” 14 So he listened to them in this matter, and tested them for ten days. 15 At the end of ten days it was seen that they were better in appearance and fatter in flesh than all the youths who ate k the king’s food. 16 w So the steward took away their food and the wine they were to drink, and gave them x vegetables. 17 As for these four youths, y God gave them learning and z skill in all literature and wisdom, and Daniel had a understanding in all visions and dreams. 18 At the end of b the time, when the king had commanded that they should be brought in, the chief of the eunuchs brought them in before Nebuchadnezzar. 19 And the king spoke with them, and among all of them none was found like Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. Therefore c they stood before the king. 20 And in every matter of wisdom and understanding about which the king inquired of them, he found them ten times better than all d the magicians and e enchanters that were in all his kingdom. 21 And Daniel f was there until the first year of g King Cyrus.
Daniel 1 1 ἐπὶ βασιλέως Ιωακιμ τῆς Ιουδαίας ἔτους τρίτου παραγενόμενος Ναβουχοδονοσορ βασιλεὺς Βαβυλῶνος εἰς Ιερουσαλημ ἐπολιόρκει αὐτήν 2 καὶ παρέδωκεν αὐτὴν κύριος εἰς χεῖρας αὐτοῦ καὶ Ιωακιμ τὸν βασιλέα τῆς Ιουδαίας καὶ μέρος τι τῶν ἱερῶν σκευῶν τοῦ κυρίου καὶ ἀπήνεγκεν αὐτὰ εἰς Βαβυλῶνα καὶ ἀπηρείσατο αὐτὰ ἐν τῷ εἰδωλίῳ αὐτοῦ 3 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ βασιλεὺς Αβιεσδρι τῷ ἑαυτοῦ ἀρχιευνούχῳ ἀγαγεῖν αὐτῷ ἐκ τῶν υἱῶν τῶν μεγιστάνων τοῦ Ισραηλ καὶ ἐκ τοῦ βασιλικοῦ γένους καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἐπιλέκτων 4 νεανίσκους ἀμώμους καὶ εὐειδεῖς καὶ ἐπιστήμονας ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ γραμματικοὺς καὶ συνετοὺς καὶ σοφοὺς καὶ ἰσχύοντας ὥστε εἶναι ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ διδάξαι αὐτοὺς γράμματα καὶ διάλεκτον Χαλδαῒκὴν 5 καὶ δίδοσθαι αὐτοῖς ἔκθεσιν ἐκ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ βασιλέως καθ’ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς βασιλικῆς τραπέζης καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ οἴνου οὗ πίνει ὁ βασιλεύς καὶ ἐκπαιδεῦσαι αὐτοὺς ἔτη τρία καὶ ἐκ τούτων στῆσαι ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ βασιλέως 6 καὶ ἦσαν ἐκ τοῦ γένους τῶν υἱῶν Ισραηλ τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς Ιουδαίας Δανιηλ Ανανιας Μισαηλ Αζαριας 7 καὶ ἐπέθηκεν αὐτοῖς ὁ ἀρχιευνοῦχος ὀνόματα τῷ μὲν Δανιηλ Βαλτασαρ τῷ δὲ Ανανια Σεδραχ καὶ τῷ Μισαηλ Μισαχ καὶ τῷ Αζαρια Αβδεναγω 8 καὶ ἐνεθυμήθη Δανιηλ ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ ὅπως μὴ ἀλισγηθῇ ἐν τῷ δείπνῳ τοῦ βασιλέως καὶ ἐν ᾧ πίνει οἴνῳ καὶ ἠξίωσε τὸν ἀρχιευνοῦχον ἵνα μὴ συμμολυνθῇ 9 καὶ ἔδωκε κύριος τῷ Δανιηλ τιμὴν καὶ χάριν ἐναντίον τοῦ ἀρχιευνούχου 10 καὶ εἶπεν ὁ ἀρχιευνοῦχος τῷ Δανιηλ ἀγωνιῶ τὸν κύριόν μου τὸν βασιλέα τὸν ἐκτάξαντα τὴν βρῶσιν ὑμῶν καὶ τὴν πόσιν ὑμῶν ἵνα μὴ ἴδῃ τὰ πρόσωπα ὑμῶν διατετραμμένα καὶ ἀσθενῆ παρὰ τοὺς συντρεφομένους ὑμῖν νεανίας τῶν ἀλλογενῶν καὶ κινδυνεύσω τῷ ἰδίῳ τραχήλῳ 11 καὶ εἶπεν Δανιηλ Αβιεσδρι τῷ ἀναδειχθέντι ἀρχιευνούχῳ ἐπὶ τὸν Δανιηλ Ανανιαν Μισαηλ Αζαριαν 12 πείρασον δὴ τοὺς παῖδάς σου ἐφ’ ἡμέρας δέκα καὶ δοθήτω ἡμῖν ἀπὸ τῶν ὀσπρίων τῆς γῆς ὥστε κάπτειν καὶ ὑδροποτεῖν 13 καὶ ἐὰν φανῇ ἡ ὄψις ἡμῶν διατετραμμένη παρὰ τοὺς ἄλλους νεανίσκους τοὺς ἐσθίοντας ἀπὸ τοῦ βασιλικοῦ δείπνου καθὼς ἐὰν θέλῃς οὕτω χρῆσαι τοῖς παισί σου 14 καὶ ἐχρήσατο αὐτοῖς τὸν τρόπον τοῦτον καὶ ἐπείρασεν αὐτοὺς ἡμέρας δέκα 15 μετὰ δὲ τὰς δέκα ἡμέρας ἐφάνη ἡ ὄψις αὐτῶν καλὴ καὶ ἡ ἕξις τοῦ σώματος κρείσσων τῶν ἄλλων νεανίσκων τῶν ἐσθιόντων τὸ βασιλικὸν δεῖπνον 16 καὶ ἦν Αβιεσδρι ἀναιρούμενος τὸ δεῖπνον αὐτῶν καὶ τὸν οἶνον αὐτῶν καὶ ἀντεδίδου αὐτοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ὀσπρίων 17 καὶ τοῖς νεανίσκοις ἔδωκεν ὁ κύριος ἐπιστήμην καὶ σύνεσιν καὶ φρόνησιν ἐν πάσῃ γραμματικῇ τέχνῃ καὶ τῷ Δανιηλ ἔδωκε σύνεσιν ἐν παντὶ ῥήματι καὶ ὁράματι καὶ ἐνυπνίοις καὶ ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ 18 μετὰ δὲ τὰς ἡμέρας ταύτας ἐπέταξεν ὁ βασιλεὺς εἰσαγαγεῖν αὐτούς καὶ εἰσήχθησαν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀρχιευνούχου πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα Ναβουχοδονοσορ 19 καὶ ὡμίλησεν αὐτοῖς ὁ βασιλεύς καὶ οὐχ εὑρέθη ἐν τοῖς σοφοῖς ὅμοιος τῷ Δανιηλ καὶ Ανανια καὶ Μισαηλ καὶ Αζαρια καὶ ἦσαν παρὰ τῷ βασιλεῖ 20 καὶ ἐν παντὶ λόγῳ καὶ συνέσει καὶ παιδείᾳ ὅσα ἐζήτησε παρ’ αὐτῶν ὁ βασιλεύς κατέλαβεν αὐτοὺς σοφωτέρους δεκαπλασίως ὑπὲρ τοὺς σοφιστὰς καὶ τοὺς φιλοσόφους τοὺς ἐν πάσῃ τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐδόξασεν αὐτοὺς ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ κατέστησεν αὐτοὺς ἄρχοντας καὶ ἀνέδειξεν αὐτοὺς σοφοὺς παρὰ πάντας τοὺς αὐτοῦ ἐν πράγμασιν ἐν πάσῃ τῇ γῇ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ 21 καὶ ἦν Δανιηλ ἕως τοῦ πρώτου ἔτους τῆς βασιλείας Κύρου βασιλέως Περσῶν
God preserves his faithful people in exile Introduction This chapter gives the historical background; shows the starting shape of Daniel's faithfulness; and it gives the summary. Backdrop; Three stages of Babylonian captivity; 605BC, 597BC, 587BC. cf 2 Kings 24-25 . This is like an embryo of the whole thing; faithfulness, in exile, for the long term (remember that, by the end, Daniel is a very old man). Repeated phrase, 'God gave' - v2, v9, v17. God is sovereignly working. 1. God gave his people into exile (v1-2) v2 onwards. God is faithful to judge. See, eg Leviticus 26 , Deuteronomy 28 , or Isaiah 39.6-7; Behold, the days are coming, when all that is in your house, and that which your fathers have stored up till this day, shall be carried to Babylon. Nothing shall be left, says the Lord . 7 And some of your own sons, who will come from you, whom you will father, shall be taken away, and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon.” Isaiah 39:6-7 ESV Babylon's roots = Shinar = Babel. Genesis 11, prototype of totalitarianism. cf Revelation; Jerusalem vs Babylon. Joining the Bible storyline together, we are told - eg James 1 or 1 Peter 1, that we are exiles scattered in our exile. So this applies to us! Curses for disobedience? How do we know we won't be delivered into the hand of our enemies? Gospel centre: God faithful to his promises to curse, poured out on the Lord Jesus. Why he calls it the 'cup'. No more condemnation. There may yet be intense refining. But all those in Christ are God's treasured possession. Jesus the true Israel; he has exhausted all the penalty and secured all the blessing. United to Him you have the favour of the Father. You must know and rest in this, otherwise your faithfulness in exile simply will not be vigorous and true. 2. God gave favour to Daniel (v3-16) Change of name, change of identity. We name you, we own you. v7 setting names. 'set' again and again. But in contrast, v8 Daniel 'set' it in his heart. Babylon providing for these men, and thus taming them. Sometimes Babylon is simply seductive - it softens and wins you over. cf champagne socialism. Resisting total assimilation - he 'did what he could'. Not dietary laws (since they didn't cover wine). Not sacrificed to idols - since vegetables may have been. Not reliance on Babylon - since the food came from them either way. Instead, a line in his heart, head, hands to resist assimilation. And in addition, perhaps a partial symbolic grieving. We will not feast while we are in exile [cf later on he is still thinking in terms of the daily sacrifices, even though he's been away for decades]. Daniel's 'heroism' forged step by step, like a muscle. Choice of allegiance to YHWH, again and again. Forged in reality, not in a dream world. Here's how it starts. Would not defile himself. Faithfulness always expressed in the nuts and bolts. Note how motives matter; not that vegetables are more holy than meat. But that, in this case, Daniel felt he would defile himself by sharing it. He took a stand, even a small one, at the start. Started as he meant to go on. After that, it's status quo. 3. God gave wisdom to Daniel and his friends (v17-21) Embryonic overview again. Faithfulness leads to ultimate vindication in due time. Wise men from the East...did some of their 'light' come from the faithful portions shown and shared by exiles like Daniel - first under Babylon and then Persia? v21 like a mini-summary. Kingdoms rise and fall; God's people go on. Cyrus - Daniel would have been in his 80s. Long-term faithfulness. Victory by sheer endurance, as false realities crumble. Conclusion 'He gives wisdom to the wise'. Since they feared God, he made them more wise. God's glory: in sovereign control to give - judgement and preserving favour. FCF: We assimilate into Babylon. Whole set of 'world' dynamics. Physically withdrawing doesn't solve the problem at all [cf 1 John 2-3, pride etc the base foundation of the world] Jesus' person: true faithfulness in the midst of the world, both against opposition and seduction. Jesus' work: suffers the judgement of his people, at the hands of fallen Babylon. In Christ: God's favour secured eternally, in Christ - by his blood. Strength and power to turn away from Babylon life, day after day for the long term. As we remain in Christ. Together, as a gospel community of light amidst darkness. Showing the fulfilment of God's plans in miniature. To know and rest in and rely upon God's love, in the midst of the ups and downs of this present evil age.