God's King removes the judgement on God's people Introduction : This final section, 21-24 - a word on format etc not mere appendices, but a final wrap up series of perspectives on God's Kingdom ordered under his King. A kind of climax. carefully organised. Not chronological, but this famine happened, 'in the days of David'. v1 - famine We miss what a big deal a famine is, year after year. begins with an awareness that something is wrong; a famine three years running; are they suffering covenant curses? Lev 26.19-20, Deut 28.23-24 etc? v1 - backdrop to the Gibeonites [illustration eg Lancaster House agreement] Joshua 9.27 they had been allowed as servants at the shrine in Gibeon. Sworn to spare them - when? Joshua 9.15 Saul's arrogance about those who had gone before him [Joshua and co], and whether they might have thought carefully and solemnly about what they did. 'Bloodguilt' - Saul had violated an oath taken in YHWH's name; ie discredited YHWH's reputation. So this is more than mere revenge, it's a 3rd commandment issue. It's a mercy to make this guilt clear and plain; when they were in the dark, they sought YHWH's face, which brought light. cf the opposite; a god who keeps you guessing about what your guilt is or isn't, like a passive aggressive person. Punishing you but not telling you. v2-14 Seven men die, and God's judgement is removed Couldn't they all just negotiate, eg with a third party to mediate? No. First, the bloodshed by Saul had polluted the land 'atonement cannot be made for the land on which blood has been shed, except by the blood of the one who shed it' Numbers 35.33'. But what is more, Saul's broken oath now incurred a covenant curse. The significance of 'cutting' a covenant (which they did in Joshua 9) is that they were saying, 'may we be put to death if we do not keep our word.' So, the curse must be satisfied. Is this scene one of horror? Yes! This is part of the point! Words like blood and wrath and curse are awful, terrible. We abstract them. Cf 'emergency services' - the actual reality is brutal, awful, terrible. David - moved by Rizpah? - gives the bodies an honourable burial. We're told this about Rizpah because we are supposed to be sad. Even though Saul sinned as an individual, he sinned as a representative covenant head; so this is a national atonement (if you like). Hence seven men become 'covenant-breakers' (ie they suffer the curse due to covenant breakers) in Israel's place. Representative of the people of Israel put to death, in order to avert bloodguilt and the outsider nation to enjoy peace Explanation of propitiation. We have difficulty with this passage because we do not grasp deeply that justice requires blood; life for life. A requirement of God.The reality of bloodguilt that persists. Only the shedding of blood can achieve atonement. How should we respond? Awe. Our God is a consuming fire, and Jesus went through that wrath for us. Outside of him there is only bloodguilt and wrath. v9 'killed and exposed' - foreshadowing of the crucifixion. Clearly they are portrayed as cursed by God. We had this with Absalom - but now even clearer as Saul's guilt is imputed to these innocent men! v7 significant; in the midst of this, Mephibosheth protected by the oath of the King. cf Jesus will not lose any of his children - John 6, John 10 etc. v7 a greater oath trumped this arrangement. There is both the satisfaction of justice, and the sparing by love, in this passage. He upholds HESED and justice at once. One man died, and God's judgement has been removed v3 interesting choice of phrases. Atonement, leading to blessing the LORD's heritage. David places himself at their mercy, given that they are their virtual slaves. cf chapter 20 and the wise woman talking about 'swallowing up the LORD's heritage' Not only removed (expiation), but exhausted (propitiation/satisfaction). Significance of resurrection as vindication. Foreshadowings of Christ: Suffers the covenant curse after the historic transgression Not seven deaths, but one Guilt placed upon him as a representative/substitute Atonement to achieve blessing of God's treasured possession A greater oath of love trumps and spares The curse is averted/satisfied/exhausted [should we use language dividing everyone into 'covenant keepers or breakers'; yes, but drifts from Bible's own language, and crucially tends to miss the centrality of Jesus. He became the covenant breaker even though he was the covenant keeper. And so in him we are covenant keepers, enjoying the secured covenant blessings - provided we do indeed share in his life by faith] God's glory: that he can make propitiation by imputing guilt and righteousness. That he keeps covenant, always and forever! FCF: We are, in Adam, covenant-breakers. By nature: swearing and promising and then not following through. Seeing ourselves as centre of the universe like Saul did. Not taking the name of God seriously! In Adam, we carry bloodguilt. By choice: Willingly dismissing the actions of wise and godly people before us. Choosing to ignore God and his name. Acting as if his name is un-trustworthy. Person of Jesus: like David, upholds and keeps covenant. He is the covenant keeper. Protects his precious chosen ones. Work of Jesus: like the seven propitiatory victims. He suffers the curse himself, is killed and exposed. Guilt placed upon him. Anointed for burial. In his death he satisfies and exhausts the wrath of God. There is none left. In Christ - there is no condemnation left. You are a covenant keeper since you are organically connected to Jesus, and participating in his life. This is what is so new about the new covenant; the covenant breaker has been punished (it's not just an example of what will happen to us); and the covenant keeper's righteousness has been given to us since we are in him. You have died, so die to covenant-breaking and breaking the 3rd commandment. You have been raised, so live in covenant-keeping life. Wrap-up: Psalm 90.11 who considers the wrath of God rightly?!
2 Samuel 21:1-14
David Avenges the Gibeonites 21 1 Now there was a famine in the days of David for three years, year after year. And David z sought the face of the Lord . And the Lord said, “There is bloodguilt on Saul and on his house, because he put the Gibeonites to death.” 2 So the king called the Gibeonites and spoke to them. Now the Gibeonites were not of the people of Israel but a of the remnant of the Amorites. Although the people of Israel had sworn to spare them, Saul had sought to strike them down in his zeal for the people of Israel and Judah. 3 And David said to the Gibeonites, “What shall I do for you? And how shall I make atonement, that you may bless b the heritage of the Lord ?” 4 The Gibeonites said to him, “It is not a matter of silver or gold between us and Saul or his house; neither is it for us to put any man to death in Israel.” And he said, “What do you say that I shall do for you?” 5 They said to the king, “The man who consumed us and planned to destroy us, so that we should have no place in all the territory of Israel, 6 let seven of his sons be given to us, so that we may hang them before the Lord at c Gibeah of Saul, d the chosen of the Lord .” And the king said, “I will give them.” 7 But the king spared Mephibosheth, the son of Saul’s son Jonathan, because of e the oath of the Lord that was between them, between David and Jonathan the son of Saul. 8 The king took the two sons of f Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, whom she bore to Saul, Armoni and Mephibosheth; and the five sons of Merab 1 the daughter of Saul, whom g she bore to h Adriel the son of Barzillai the Meholathite; 9 and he gave them into the hands of the Gibeonites, and they hanged them on the mountain before the Lord , and the seven of them perished together. They were put to death in the first days of harvest, i at the beginning of barley harvest. 10 j Then Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth and spread it for herself on the rock, from the beginning of harvest until rain fell upon them from the heavens. And she did not allow the birds of the air to come upon them by day, or the beasts of the field by night. 11 When David was told what Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, the concubine of Saul, had done, 12 David went and took the bones of Saul and the bones of his son Jonathan from the men of Jabesh-gilead, k who had stolen them from the public square of l Beth-shan, where the Philistines had hanged them, on the day the Philistines killed Saul on Gilboa. 13 And he brought up from there the bones of Saul and the bones of his son Jonathan; and they gathered the bones of those who were hanged. 14 And they buried the bones of Saul and his son Jonathan in the land of Benjamin in m Zela, in the tomb of Kish his father. And they did all that the king commanded. And after that n God responded to the plea for the land.
2 Samuel 21:1-14
21 1 וַיְהִ֣י רָעָב֩ בִּימֵ֨י דָוִ֜ד שָׁלֹ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֗ים שָׁנָה֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י שָׁנָ֔ה וַיְבַקֵּ֥שׁ דָּוִ֖ד אֶת ־ פְּנֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה ס וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוָ֗ה אֶל ־ שָׁאוּל֙ וְאֶל ־ בֵּ֣ית הַדָּמִ֔ים עַל ־ אֲשֶׁר ־ הֵמִ֖ית אֶת ־ הַגִּבְעֹנִֽים ׃ 2 וַיִּקְרָ֥א הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ לַגִּבְעֹנִ֖ים וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֑ם וְהַגִּבְעֹנִ֞ים לֹ֣א מִבְּנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל הֵ֗מָּה כִּ֚י אִם ־ מִיֶּ֣תֶר הָאֱמֹרִ֔י וּבְנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ נִשְׁבְּע֣וּ לָהֶ֔ם וַיְבַקֵּ֤שׁ שָׁאוּל֙ לְהַכֹּתָ֔ם בְּקַנֹּאת֥וֹ לִבְנֵֽי ־ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל וִיהוּדָֽה ׃ 3 וַיֹּ֤אמֶר דָּוִד֙ אֶל ־ הַגִּבְעֹנִ֔ים מָ֥ה אֶעֱשֶׂ֖ה לָכֶ֑ם וּבַמָּ֣ה אֲכַפֵּ֔ר וּבָרְכ֖וּ אֶת ־ נַחֲלַ֥ת יְהוָֽה ׃ 4 וַיֹּ֧אמְרוּ ל֣וֹ הַגִּבְעֹנִ֗ים אֵֽין ־ לי 1 כֶּ֤סֶף וְזָהָב֙ עִם ־ שָׁא֣וּל וְעִם ־ בֵּית֔וֹ וְאֵֽין ־ לָ֥נוּ אִ֖ישׁ לְהָמִ֣ית בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֹּ֛אמֶר מָֽה ־ אַתֶּ֥ם אֹמְרִ֖ים אֶעֱשֶׂ֥ה לָכֶֽם ׃ 5 וַיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ אֶל ־ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ הָאִישׁ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר כִּלָּ֔נוּ וַאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּמָּה ־ לָ֑נוּ נִשְׁמַ֕דְנוּ מֵֽהִתְיַצֵּ֖ב בְּכָל ־ גְּבֻ֥ל יִשְׂרָאֵֽל ׃ 6 ינתן 1 ־ לָ֜נוּ שִׁבְעָ֤ה אֲנָשִׁים֙ מִבָּנָ֔יו וְהוֹקַֽעֲנוּם֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה בְּגִבְעַ֥ת שָׁא֖וּל בְּחִ֣יר יְהוָ֑ה ס וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֲנִ֥י אֶתֵּֽן ׃ 7 וַיַּחְמֹ֣ל הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ עַל ־ מְפִי ־ בֹ֖שֶׁת 1 בֶּן ־ יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בֶּן ־ שָׁא֑וּל עַל ־ שְׁבֻעַ֤ת יְהוָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בֵּֽינֹתָ֔ם בֵּ֣ין דָּוִ֔ד וּבֵ֖ין יְהוֹנָתָ֥ן בֶּן ־ שָׁאֽוּל ׃ 8 וַיִּקַּ֣ח הַמֶּ֡לֶךְ אֶת ־ שְׁ֠נֵי בְּנֵ֨י רִצְפָּ֤ה בַת ־ אַיָּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָלְדָ֣ה לְשָׁא֔וּל אֶת ־ אַרְמֹנִ֖י וְאֶת ־ מְפִבֹ֑שֶׁת וְאֶת ־ חֲמֵ֗שֶׁת בְּנֵי֙ מִיכַ֣ל בַּת ־ שָׁא֔וּל אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָלְדָ֛ה לְעַדְרִיאֵ֥ל בֶּן ־ בַּרְזִלַּ֖י הַמְּחֹלָתִֽי ׃ 9 וַֽיִּתְּנֵ֞ם בְּיַ֣ד הַגִּבְעֹנִ֗ים וַיֹּקִיעֻ֤ם בָּהָר֙ לִפְנֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה וַיִּפְּל֥וּ שבעתים 1 יָ֑חַד והם 2 הֻמְת֜וּ בִּימֵ֤י קָצִיר֙ בָּרִ֣אשֹׁנִ֔ים תחלת 3 4 קְצִ֥יר שְׂעֹרִֽים ׃ 10 וַתִּקַּ֣ח רִצְפָּה֩ בַת ־ אַיָּ֨ה אֶת ־ הַשַּׂ֜ק וַתַּטֵּ֨הוּ לָ֤הּ אֶל ־ הַצּוּר֙ מִתְּחִלַּ֣ת קָצִ֔יר עַ֛ד נִתַּךְ ־ מַ֥יִם עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם מִן ־ הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם וְלֹֽא ־ נָתְנָה֩ ע֨וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֜יִם לָנ֤וּחַ עֲלֵיהֶם֙ יוֹמָ֔ם וְאֶת ־ חַיַּ֥ת הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לָֽיְלָה ׃ 11 וַיֻּגַּ֖ד לְדָוִ֑ד אֵ֧ת אֲשֶׁר ־ עָשְׂתָ֛ה רִצְפָּ֥ה בַת ־ אַיָּ֖ה פִּלֶ֥גֶשׁ שָׁאֽוּל ׃ 12 וַיֵּ֣לֶךְ דָּוִ֗ד וַיִּקַּ֞ח אֶת ־ עַצְמ֤וֹת שָׁאוּל֙ וְאֶת ־ עַצְמוֹת֙ יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בְּנ֔וֹ מֵאֵ֕ת בַּעֲלֵ֖י יָבֵ֣ישׁ גִּלְעָ֑ד אֲשֶׁר֩ גָּנְב֨וּ אֹתָ֜ם מֵרְחֹ֣ב בֵּֽית ־ שַׁ֗ן אֲשֶׁ֨ר תלום 1 שם הפלשתים 2 בְּי֨וֹם הַכּ֧וֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּ֛ים אֶת ־ שָׁא֖וּל בַּגִּלְבֹּֽעַ ׃ 13 וַיַּ֤עַל מִשָּׁם֙ אֶת ־ עַצְמ֣וֹת שָׁא֔וּל וְאֶת ־ עַצְמ֖וֹת יְהוֹנָתָ֣ן בְּנ֑וֹ וַיַּ֣אַסְפ֔וּ אֶת ־ עַצְמ֖וֹת הַמּוּקָעִֽים ׃ 14 וַיִּקְבְּר֣וּ אֶת ־ עַצְמוֹת ־ שָׁא֣וּל וִיהוֹנָֽתָן ־ בְּ֠נוֹ בְּאֶ֨רֶץ בִּנְיָמִ֜ן בְּצֵלָ֗ע בְּקֶ֙בֶר֙ קִ֣ישׁ אָבִ֔יו וַֽיַּעֲשׂ֔וּ כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר ־ צִוָּ֖ה הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיֵּעָתֵ֧ר אֱלֹהִ֛ים לָאָ֖רֶץ אַֽחֲרֵי ־ כֵֽן ׃ פ
2 Samuel 21:1-14
21 1 καὶ ἐγένετο λιμὸς ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Δαυιδ τρία ἔτη ἐνιαυτὸς ἐχόμενος ἐνιαυτοῦ καὶ ἐζήτησεν Δαυιδ τὸ πρόσωπον τοῦ κυρίου καὶ εἶπεν κύριος ἐπὶ Σαουλ καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ ἀδικία διὰ τὸ αὐτὸν θανάτῳ αἱμάτων περὶ οὗ ἐθανάτωσεν τοὺς Γαβαωνίτας 2 καὶ ἐκάλεσεν ὁ βασιλεὺς Δαυιδ τοὺς Γαβαωνίτας καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς καὶ οἱ Γαβαωνῖται οὐχ υἱοὶ Ισραηλ εἰσίν ὅτι ἀλλ’ ἢ ἐκ τοῦ λείμματος τοῦ Αμορραίου καὶ οἱ υἱοὶ Ισραηλ ὤμοσαν αὐτοῖς καὶ ἐζήτησεν Σαουλ πατάξαι αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ ζηλῶσαι αὐτὸν τοὺς υἱοὺς Ισραηλ καὶ Ιουδα 3 καὶ εἶπεν Δαυιδ πρὸς τοὺς Γαβαωνίτας τί ποιήσω ὑμῖν καὶ ἐν τίνι ἐξιλάσομαι καὶ εὐλογήσετε τὴν κληρονομίαν κυρίου 4 καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ οἱ Γαβαωνῖται οὐκ ἔστιν ἡμῖν ἀργύριον καὶ χρυσίον μετὰ Σαουλ καὶ μετὰ τοῦ οἴκου αὐτοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἡμῖν ἀνὴρ θανατῶσαι ἐν Ισραηλ καὶ εἶπεν τί ὑμεῖς λέγετε καὶ ποιήσω ὑμῖν 5 καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα ὁ ἀνὴρ συνετέλεσεν ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς καὶ ἐδίωξεν ἡμᾶς ὃς παρελογίσατο ἐξολεθρεῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀφανίσωμεν αὐτὸν τοῦ μὴ ἑστάναι αὐτὸν ἐν παντὶ ὁρίῳ Ισραηλ 6 δότω ἡμῖν ἑπτὰ ἄνδρας ἐκ τῶν υἱῶν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐξηλιάσωμεν αὐτοὺς τῷ κυρίῳ ἐν Γαβαων Σαουλ ἐκλεκτοὺς κυρίου καὶ εἶπεν ὁ βασιλεύς ἐγὼ δώσω 7 καὶ ἐφείσατο ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐπὶ Μεμφιβοσθε υἱὸν Ιωναθαν υἱοῦ Σαουλ διὰ τὸν ὅρκον κυρίου τὸν ἀνὰ μέσον αὐτῶν ἀνὰ μέσον Δαυιδ καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον Ιωναθαν υἱοῦ Σαουλ 8 καὶ ἔλαβεν ὁ βασιλεὺς τοὺς δύο υἱοὺς Ρεσφα θυγατρὸς Αια οὓς ἔτεκεν τῷ Σαουλ τὸν Ερμωνι καὶ τὸν Μεμφιβοσθε καὶ τοὺς πέντε υἱοὺς Μιχολ θυγατρὸς Σαουλ οὓς ἔτεκεν τῷ Εσριηλ υἱῷ Βερζελλι τῷ Μοουλαθι 9 καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοὺς ἐν χειρὶ τῶν Γαβαωνιτῶν καὶ ἐξηλίασαν αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ ὄρει ἔναντι κυρίου καὶ ἔπεσαν οἱ ἑπτὰ αὐτοὶ ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό καὶ αὐτοὶ δὲ ἐθανατώθησαν ἐν ἡμέραις θερισμοῦ ἐν πρώτοις ἐν ἀρχῇ θερισμοῦ κριθῶν 10 καὶ ἔλαβεν Ρεσφα θυγάτηρ Αια τὸν σάκκον καὶ ἔπηξεν αὑτῇ πρὸς τὴν πέτραν ἐν ἀρχῇ θερισμοῦ κριθῶν ἕως ἔσταξεν ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς ὕδωρ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἔδωκεν τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταπαῦσαι ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς ἡμέρας καὶ τὰ θηρία τοῦ ἀγροῦ νυκτός 11 καὶ ἀπηγγέλη τῷ Δαυιδ ὅσα ἐποίησεν Ρεσφα θυγάτηρ Αια παλλακὴ Σαουλ καὶ ἐξελύθησαν καὶ κατέλαβεν αὐτοὺς Δαν υἱὸς Ιωα ἐκ τῶν ἀπογόνων τῶν γιγάντων 12 καὶ ἐπορεύθη Δαυιδ καὶ ἔλαβεν τὰ ὀστᾶ Σαουλ καὶ τὰ ὀστᾶ Ιωναθαν τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ παρὰ τῶν ἀνδρῶν υἱῶν Ιαβις Γαλααδ οἳ ἔκλεψαν αὐτοὺς ἐκ τῆς πλατείας Βαιθσαν ὅτι ἔστησαν αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖ οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ᾗ ἐπάταξαν οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι τὸν Σαουλ ἐν Γελβουε 13 καὶ ἀνήνεγκεν ἐκεῖθεν τὰ ὀστᾶ Σαουλ καὶ τὰ ὀστᾶ Ιωναθαν τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ καὶ συνήγαγεν τὰ ὀστᾶ τῶν ἐξηλιασμένων 14 καὶ ἔθαψαν τὰ ὀστᾶ Σαουλ καὶ τὰ ὀστᾶ Ιωναθαν τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ καὶ τῶν ἡλιασθέντων ἐν γῇ Βενιαμιν ἐν τῇ πλευρᾷ ἐν τῷ τάφῳ Κις τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐποίησαν πάντα ὅσα ἐνετείλατο ὁ βασιλεύς καὶ ἐπήκουσεν ὁ θεὸς τῇ γῇ μετὰ ταῦτα