"It feels so good to be justified!" – Shai Linne
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Discourse Analysis of Romans 5:12–17
Romans 5:12-17
Adam’s sin brought the reign of death for his posterity, but Christ's gift does far greater for his posterity.
Published March 13th, 2021; Updated March 16th, 2021
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Main point summary
Main point summary
Although Adam’s sin brought the reign of death for his posterity, much more does the far-greater and gracious gift of Christ bring life and justification for his posterity.
Romans 5:12-17
Διὰ τοῦτο ὥσπερ διʼ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου
For this reason, just as because of one man,
ἡ ἁμαρτία εἰς τὸν κόσμον εἰσῆλθεν
sin entered the world
καὶ διὰ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὁ θάνατος,
and death entered the world through and because of sin,
καὶ οὕτως εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὁ θάνατος διῆλθεν,
and as a result death came to all people,
ἐφʼ ᾧ πάντες ἥμαρτον•
because [in that one man sinning] all people sinned.
ἄχρι γὰρ νόμου
This is the proof [that all people sinned in that one man sinning and die as a result:] although before the Mosaic law was given
ἁμαρτία ἦν ἐν κόσμῳ,
sin was already in the world,
ἁμαρτία δὲ οὐκ ἐλλογεῖται
sin is not counted [in the same way as Adam's was]
μὴ ὄντος νόμου,
when there is no explicit law.
ἀλλʼ ἐβασίλευσεν ὁ θάνατος
Nevertheless [even though sin was not being counted in the same way as Adam's was] , death reigned
ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ μέχρι Μωϋσέως
from Adam to Moses,
καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς μὴ ἁμαρτήσαντας
even over those who did not sin
ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοιώματι τῆς παραβάσεως Ἀδὰμ
in a manner similar [against a specific law/command] to the transgression of Adam,
ὅς ἐστιν τύπος τοῦ μέλλοντος.
[and this all shows that Adam] was a type of the one who was to come.
Ἀλλʼ οὐχ ὡς τὸ παράπτωμα, οὕτως καὶ τὸ χάρισμα•
Although [everything I just said is true, showing that Adam is a type of the one who was to come], the transgression is not like the gift:
εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι
For if because of the transgression of one man,
οἱ πολλοὶ ἀπέθανον,
the result was that many died,
πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἡ δωρεὰ
Much more did the grace of God and the gift that resulted
ἐν χάριτι τῇ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ
because of the grace of the one man Jesus Christ
εἰς τοὺς πολλοὺς ἐπερίσσευσεν.
abound to many.
καὶ οὐχ ὡς διʼ ἑνὸς ἁμαρτήσαντος τὸ δώρημα•
futhermore, the gift is not like the result of the one man who sinned
τὸ μὲν γὰρ κρίμα
for while on one hand , the judgment that resulted
ἐξ ἑνὸς
from the one man
εἰς κατάκριμα,
resulted into condemnation,
τὸ δὲ χάρισμα
on the other hand, the gift [ that was surprisingly given in response...
ἐκ πολλῶν παραπτωμάτων
to the situation] of many sins,
εἰς δικαίωμα.
resulted in justification.
εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι
For [ to concisely restate and summarize everything I explained in verses 12-16 ] if because of the trespass of the one man
ὁ θάνατος ἐβασίλευσεν
death reigned
διὰ τοῦ ἑνός,
because of that one man,
πολλῷ μᾶλλον οἱ τὴν περισσείαν τῆς χάριτος καὶ τῆς δωρεᾶς τῆς δικαιοσύνης λαμβάνοντες
much more, those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness [ with the implication of because they receive this grace and gift]
ἐν ζωῇ βασιλεύσουσιν
will reign in life [ with the implication of as a result of their receipt of grace in gift]
διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.
because of the one man Jesus Christ.
Disclaimer: The opinions and conclusions expressed on this page are those of the author and may or may not accord with the positions of Biblearc or Bethlehem College & Seminary.