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Hebrew—An Introduction to Reading the Old Testament
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Lesson 9: Adjectives and numbers
Cardinal numbers (1, 2, 3...) (step 4 of 8)
Another sort of adjective

Numbers are a special sort of adjective and worth looking at separately. We will examine cardinal numbers on this lesson step, and ordinal numbers on the next.
cardinal numbers 1-10
masculine & feminine
אֶחָד אֶחָת 1
שְׁנַיִם שְׁתַּיִם 2
שְׁלֹשָׁה שָׁלוֹשׁ 3
אַרְבָּעָה אַרְבַּע 4
חֲמִשָּׁה חָמֵשׁ 5
שִׁשָּׁה שֵׁשׁ 6
שִׁבְעָה שֶׁבַע 7
שְׁמֹנָה שְׁמֹנֶה 8
תִּשְׁעָה תְּשַׁע 9
עֲשָׂרָה עֶשֶׂר 10
You may notice that the gender of the cardinal numbers seems backwards from three onward. No, this is not a mistake in the paradigm. Indeed most cardinal numbers in the masculine form look feminine and vice versa. (Don’t bother asking why—that’s just the way it is!)

In addition, while adjectives, unlike English, normally come after the nouns they describe (עַם־רָב vs. “a numerous people”), numbers come before the nouns they modify. That is, all except for the number one—אֶחָד—which behaves like a normal Hebrew adjective. Hence, one man is written אִישׁ־אֶחָד whereas two men reads שְׁנֵי־אֲנָשִׁים. You may also note from this example that the ם is dropped from the word שְׁנַיִם the same as it would in construct form. This is something special about the number two.
Numbers 11-19

For numbers between ten and twenty, a number between 1-10 is combined with עָשָׂר (masculine) or עֶשְׂרֵה (feminine). So, for example, twelve is written שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר in its masculine form and שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה in its feminine form.
Numbers 20+

Things get a bit easier starting from twenty as numbers then use a common gender. 
cardinal numbers 20+
common gender
עֶשְׂרִים 20
שְׁלֹשִׁים 30
אַרְבָּעִים 40
חֲמִשִּׁים 50
שִׁשִּׁים 60
שִׁבְעִים 70
שְׁמֹנִים 80
תִּשְׁעִים 90
מֵאָה 100
אֶלֶף 1000
For instances where more specificity is used, the additional number is simply added on with the ו conjunction. Thus, twenty-four in the masculine is עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה and in the feminine is עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע. For numbers larger than one hundred, מֵאָה and אֶלֶף may become either plural or dual in number, and their modifier may take construct form. 
cardinal numbers
large example
common מָאתַיִם 200
feminine שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת 300
common אַלְפַּיִם 2000
masculine שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים 3000
masculine אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף 24,000