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Hebrew—An Introduction to Reading the Old Testament
About this course
Lesson 10: Studying the Hebrew Bible
Paradigm review (step 6 of 9)
One of the ways we have sought to learn the grammatical forms in Biblical Hebrew has been through the study of paradigms. While you are certainly not expected to be able to produce these paradigms from memory with all their details, they should now all look quite familiar. For those grammatical features which are more difficult for you to identify, take several minutes to linger once again over the corresponding paradigms.
Lesson 1: The alphabet
Dual-sound letters
b בּ ב v
k כּ כ kh
p פּ פ f
sh שׁ שׂ s
Final letters
כ ך
מ ם
נ ן
פ ף
צ ץ
Special letters
Can act as vowels
Guttural letters
Lesson 2: Verbs—perfect
qal perfect for אָמַר
1cs אָמַרְתִּי I said
1cp אָמַרְנוּ we said
2ms אָמַרְתָּ you [sir] said
2fs אָמַרְתְּ you [ma’am] said
2mp אֲמַרְתֶּם you all said
2fp אֲמַרְתֶּן [ladies] you all said
3ms אָמַר he said
3fs אָמְרָה she said
3cp אָמְרוּ they said
qal perfect for בּוֹא
1cs בָּאתִי I came
1cp בָּאנוּ we came
2ms בָּאתָ you [sir] came
2fs בָּאתְ you [ma’am] came
2mp בָּאתֶם you all came
2fp בָּאתֶן [ladies] you all came
3ms בָּא he came
3fs בָּאָה she came
3cp בָּאוּ they came
qal perfect for הָיָה
1cs הָיִיתִי I was
1cp הָיִינוּ we were
2ms הָיִיתָ you [sir] were
2fs הָיִיתְ you [ma’am] were
2mp הֱיִיתֶם you all were
2fp הֱיִיתֶן [ladies] you all were
3ms הָיָה he was
3fs הָיְתָה she was
3cp הָיוּ they were
Lesson 3: Verbs—imperfect
qal imperfect for שָׁמַר
1cs אֶשְׁמֹר I will keep
1cp נִשְׁמֹר we will keep
2ms תִּשְׁמֹר you [sir] will keep
2fs תִּשְׁמְרִי you [ma’am] will keep
2mp תִּשְׁמְרוּ you all will keep
2fp תִּשְׁמֹרְנָה [ladies] you all will keep
3ms יִשְׁמֹר he will keep
3fs תִּשְׁמֹר she will keep
3mp יִשְׁמְרוּ they will keep
3fp תִּשְׁמֹרְנָה [those ladies] will keep
qal imperfect for בּוֹא
1cs אָבוֹא I will come
1cp נָבוֹא we will come
2ms תָּבוֹא you [sir] will come
2fs תָּבֹאִי you [ma’am] will come
2mp תָּבֹאוּ you all will come
2fp תָּבֹאנָה [ladies] you all will come
3ms יָבוֹא he will come
3fs תָּבוֹא she will come
3mp יָבוֹאוּ they will come
3fp תָּבֹאנָה [those ladies] will come
qal imperfect for הָיָה
1cs אֶהְיֶה I will be
1cp נִהְיֶה we will be
2ms תִּהְיֶה you [sir] will be
2fs תְּהִי you [ma’am] will be
2mp תִּהְיוּ you all will be
2fp תִּהְיֶינָה [ladies] you all will be
3ms יִהְיֶה he will be
3fs תִּהְיוּ she will be
3mp יִהְיוּ they will be
3fp תִּהְיֶינָה [those ladies] will be
qal imperfect for נָתַן
1cs אֶתֵּן I will give
1cp נִתֵּן we will give
2ms תִּתֶּן you [sir] will give
2fs תִתְּנִי you [ma’am] will give
2mp תִּתְּנוּ you all will give
3ms יִתֵּן he will give
3fs תִּתֶּן she will give
3mp יִתְּנוּ they will give
qal sequential-imperfect for קָרָא
1cs וָאֶקְרָא and I called
1cp וַנִקְרָא and we called
2ms וַתִּקְרָא and you [sir] called
2fs וַתִּקְרְאִי and you [ma’am] called
2mp וַתִּקְרְאוּ and you all called
2fp וַתִּקְרֶאנָה and [ladies] you all called
3ms וַיִּקְרָא and he called
3fs וַתִּקְרָא and she called
3mp וַיִּקְרְאוּ and they called
3fp וַתִּקְרֶאנָה and [those ladies] called
qal sequential-imperfect for אָמַר
1cs וָאֹמַר and I said
1cp וַנֹּאמֶר and we said
2ms וַתֹּאמֶר and you [sir] said
2fs וַתֹּאמְרִי and you [ma’am] said
2mp וַתֹּאמְרוּ and you all said
2fp וַתֹּאמַרְנָה and [ladies] you all said
3ms וַיֹּאמֶר and he said
3fs וַתֹּאמֶר and she said
3mp וַיֹּאמְרוּ and they said
3fp וַתֹּאמַרְנָה and [those ladies] said
Lesson 4: Verbs—stems
qal & niphal perfect for מָצָא
1cs מָצָאתִי נִמְצֵאתִי I found / was found
1cp מָצָאנוּ נִמְצֵאנוּ we found / were found
2ms מָצָאתָ נִמְצֵאתָ you [sir] found / were found
2fs מָצָאת נִמְצֵאת you [ma’am] found / were found
2mp מְצָאתֶם נִמְצֵאתֶם you all found / were found
2fp מְצָאתֶן [ladies] you all found
3ms מָצָא נִמְצָא he found / was found
3fs מָצְאָה נִמְצְאָה she found / was found
3cp מָצְאוּ נִמְצְאוּ they found / were found
qal & niphal imperfect for מָצָא
1cs אֶמְצָא אֶמָּצֵא I will find / be found
1cp נִמְצָא נִמָּצֵא we will find / be found
2ms תִּמְצָא תִּמָּצֵא you [sir] will find / be found
2fs תִּמְצְאִי תִּמָּצְאִי you [ma’am] will find / be found
2mp תִּמְצְאוּ תִּמָּצְאוּ you all will find / be found
2fp תִּמְצֶאנָה [ladies] you all will find
3ms יִמְצָא יִמָּצֵא he will find / be found
3fs תִּמְצָא תִּמָּצֵא she will find / be found
3mp יִמְצְאוּ יִמָּצְאוּ they will find / be found
3fp תִּמְצֶאנָה תִּמָּצֶאנָה [those ladies] will find / be found
piel & pual perfect for כָּפַר
1cs כִּפַּרְתִּי כֻּפַּרְתִּי I atoned / was atoned for
1cp כִּפַּרְנוּ we atoned
2ms כִּפַּרְתָּ you [sir] atoned
2fs כִּפַּרְתְּ you [ma’am] atoned
2mp כִּפַּרְתֶּם you all atoned
3ms כִּפֵּר כֻּפַּר he atoned / was atoned for
3fs כִּפְּרָה כֻּפְּרָה she atoned / was atoned for
3cp כִּפְּרוּ כֻּפְּרוּ they atoned / were atoned for
piel & pual imperfect for כָּפַר
1cs אֲכַפֵּר I will atone
1cp נְכַפֵּר we will atone
2ms תְּכַפֵּר you [sir] will atone
2fs תְּכַפְּרִי you [ma’am] will atone
2mp תְּכַפְּרוּ you all will atone
2fp תְּכַפֵּרְנָה [ladies] you all will atone
3ms יְכַפֵּר יְכֻפַּר he will atone / be atoned for
3fs תְּכַפֵּר תְּכֻפַּר she will atone / be atoned for
3mp יְכַפְּרוּ יְכֻפְּרוּ they will atone / be atoned for
3fp תְּכַפֵּרְנָה [those ladies] will atone
hiphil & hophal perfect for בּוֹא
1cs הֵבֵאתִי הֻבָאתִי I brought / was brought
1cp הֵבֵאנוּ we brought
2ms הֵבֵאתָ הֻבָאתָ you [sir] brought / were brought
2fs הֵבֵאתְ you [ma’am] brought
2mp הֲבֵאתֶם you all brought
3ms הֵבִיא הוּבָא he brought / was brought
3fs הֵבִיאָה הוּבְאָה she brought / was brought
3cp הֵבִיאוּ הוּבְאוּ they brought / were brought
hiphil & hophal imperfect for בּוֹא
1cs אָבִיא I will bring
1cp נָבִיא we will bring
2ms תָּבִיא you [sir] will bring
2fs תָּבִיאִי you [ma’am] will bring
2mp תָּבִיאוּ you all will bring
3ms יָבִיא יוּבָא he will bring / be brought
3fs תָּבִיא תּוּבָא she will bring / be brought
3mp יָבִיאוּ יוּבָאוּ they will bring / be brought
3fp תְּבִיאֶינָה [those ladies] will bring
hithpael perfect for הָלַךְ
1cs הִתְהַלַּכְתִּי I walked about
1cp הִתְהַלַּכְנוּ we walked about
2ms הִתְהַלַּכְתָּ you [sir] walked about
2mp הִתְהַלַּכְתֶּם you all walked about
3ms הִתְהַלֶּךְ he walked about
3cp הִתְהַלְּכוּ they walked about
hithpael imperfect for הָלַךְ
1cs אֶתְהַלֵּךְ I will walk about
1cp נִתְהַלֵּךְ we will walk about
2ms תִתְהַלֵּךְ you [sir] will walk about
2fs תִתְהַלְּכִי you [ma’am] will walk about
2mp תִתְהַלְּכוּ you all will walk about
3ms יִתְהַלֵּךְ he will walk about
3fs תִתְהַלֵּךְ she will walk about
3mp יִתְהַלְּכוּ they will walk about
Lesson 5: Verbs—commands and infinitives
2ms imperative & imperfect
qal לֵךְ תֵּלֵךְ go / you will go
piel דַּבֵּר תְּדַבֵּר speak / you will speak
hiphil הַגֶּד תַּגִּיד tell / you will tell
niphal הִנָּבֵא תִּנָּבֵא prophesy / you will prophesy
hithpael הִתְיַצֵּב תִּתְיַצֵּב stand / you will stand
infinitive-construct & infinitive-absolute
qal לִשְׁפֹּט שָׁפוֹט to judge / judge
piel לְדַבֵּר דַבֵּר to speak / speak
hiphil לְהַבְדִּיל הַבְדֵּל to distinguish / distinguish
niphal לְהִמָּלֵט הִמָּלֵט to flee / flee
hithpael לְהִתְפַּלֵּל to pray
Lesson 6: Nouns, pronouns and participles
singular & plural forms
masculine מֶלֶךְ מְלָכִים king / kings
feminine מִשְׁפָּחָה מִשְׁפְּחוֹת family / families
singular & dual forms
feminine רֶגֶל רַגְלַיִם leg / pair of legs
masculine יוֹם יֹמַיִם day / two days
feminine מֵאָה מָאתַיִם one hundred / two hundred
common masculine nouns
בֵּן בָּנִים son / sons
אִישׁ אֲנָשִׁים man / men
בַּיִת בָּתִּים house / houses
אַב אָבוֹת father / fathers
דָּבָר דְּבָרִים word / words
עַם עַמִּים people / peoples
common feminine nouns
שָׁנָה שָׁנִים year / years
עִיר עָרִים city / cities
אִשָּׁה נָשִׁים woman / women
בַּת בְּנוֹת daughter / daughters
חֶרֶב חַרְבוֹת sword / swords
רֶגֶל רְגָלִים leg / legs
personal pronouns
primary and alternative forms
1cs אָנֹכִי אֲנִי I
1cp אֲנַחְנוּ we
2ms אַתָּה you [sir]
2fs אַתְּ you [ma’am]
2mp אַתֶּם you all
2fp אַתֶּן אַתֵּנָה [ladies] you all
3ms הוּא he
3fs הִיא הִוא she
3mp הֵם הֵמָּה they
3fp הֵן הֵנָּה [those ladies]
demonstrative pronouns
primary and alternative forms
ms זֶה זֹה this
fs זֹאת this
cp אֵלֶּה these
ms הוּא that
fs הִיא that
mp הֵם הֵמָּה those
fp הֵנָּה those
qal participle for יָשַׁב
singular & plural forms
masculine יוֹשֵׁב יֹשְׁבִים sitting (he / they)
feminine יוֹשֶׁבֶת יֹשְׁבוֹת sitting (she / [those ladies])
2ms participles
active & passive
qal / niphal יוֹשֵׁב נִשְׁאָר sitting / remaining
qal passive כָּתוּב written
piel / pual מְבַקֵּשׁ מְבֹרָךְ requesting / blessed
hiphil / hophal מֵבִיא מֻשְׁלָךְ bringing / thrown
hithpael מִתְהַלֵּךְ walking about
Lesson 7: Prefixes, suffixes and construct form
types of prefixes and suffixes
conjunction וַיְסַפֵּר and he told
article הַחֲלוֹם the dream
preposition לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת to bow down
relative שֶׁגַּם that also
interrogative הֲבוֹא נָבוֹא will we surely come
pronominal אָבִיו his father
directional אָרְצָה to [the] ground
paragogic וָאֶתְּנָה and I gave
prefix prepositions + the relative prefix
standard and definite article forms
בְּאֶרֶץ בָּאָרֶץ in a land / in the land
לְמָיִם לָמָיִם to water / to the water
כִּדְבַר כַּדָּבָר according to a word / according to the word
מֵהַר מֵהָהָר from a mountain / from the mountain
שֶׁהָיָה which was
pronoun suffixes
attached to nouns and verbs
1cs בְּנִי שְׁלָחַנִי my son / he sent me
1cp בְּנֵנוּ שְׁלָחָנוּ our son / he sent us
2ms בִּנְךָ שְׁלָחֲךָ your son [sir] / he sent you [sir]
2fs בְּנֵךְ שְׁלָחֵךְ your son [ma’am] / he sent you [ma’am]
2mp בִּנְכֶם שְׁלָחֲכֶם the son of you all / he sent you all
2fp בִּנְכֶן שְׁלָחֲכֶן the son of all you [ladies] / he sent all you [ladies]
3ms בְּנוֹ שְׁלָחוֹ his son / he sent him
3fs בְּנָהּ שְׁלָחָהּ her son / he sent her
3mp בִּנְהֶם שְׁלָחָם their son / he sent them
3fp בִּנְהֶן שְׁלָחָן the son of [those ladies] / he sent [those ladies]
pronoun suffixes
attached to prefix prepositions
1cs בִּי לִי in me / to me
1cp בָּנוּ לָנוּ in us / to us
2ms בְּךָ לְךָ in you [sir] / to you [sir]
2fs בָּךְ לָךְ in you [ma’am] / to you [ma’am]
2mp בָּכֶם לָכֶם in you all / to you all
2fp בָּכֶן לָכֶן in all you [ladies] / to all you [ladies]
3ms בּוֹ לוֹ in him / to him
3fs בָּהּ לָהּ in her / to her
3mp בָּהֶם, בָּם לָהֶם in them / to them
3fp בָּהֶן לָהֶן in [those ladies] / to [those ladies]
construct chain examples
דְבַר־יְהוָה the word of the Lord
בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה in the book of the Law of Moses
אֲבִי כָּל־בְּנֵי־עֵבֶר the father of all of the sons of Eber
בֵּית אֲחֵי אֲדֹנִי the house of the brothers of my lord
עֵץ הַחַיִּים the tree of life
עֵץ חַיִּים a tree of life
absolute and construct states
singular דָבַר דְבַר word / word of
singular בַּיִת בֵּית house / house of
singular תּוֹרָה תּוֹרַת teaching / teaching of
singular אָב אֲבִי father / father of
plural דְּבָרִים דִּבְרֵי words / words of
plural בָּתִּים בָּתֵּי houses / houses of
plural תוֹרוֹת תוֹרוֹת teachings / teachings of
plural אָבוֹת אֲבוֹת fathers / fathers of
Lesson 8: Prepositions, conjunctions and more
stand-alone prepositions
אַחַר after
אֵל toward
אֵצֶל near, beside
אֵת with
בֵּין between
בְּעַד on behalf of
לִפְנֵי before
מִן from
מִפְּנֵי from, due to
עַד until
עַל upon, regarding
עִם with
תַּחַת under, in place of
stand-alone conjunctions
אוֹ or
אָז then
אִם if
כִּי because, that
יַעַן because
לְמַעַן in order
עוֹד while
פֵּן lest
Lesson 9: Adjectives and numbers
the four forms of טוֹב
ms אִישׁ טוֹב good man
fs בְּשׂוֹרָה טוֹבָה good news
mp בָּתִּים טוֹבִים good houses
fp תְּאֵנִים טֹבוֹת good figs
attributive and predicate positions
attributive עַם־רָב a numerous people
predicate הָעָם רָב the people are numerous
attributive, definite הָעָם הָרָב the numerous people
cardinal numbers 1-10
masculine & feminine
אֶחָד אֶחָת 1
שְׁנַיִם שְׁתַּיִם 2
שְׁלֹשָׁה שָׁלוֹשׁ 3
אַרְבָּעָה אַרְבַּע 4
חֲמִשָּׁה חָמֵשׁ 5
שִׁשָּׁה שֵׁשׁ 6
שִׁבְעָה שֶׁבַע 7
שְׁמֹנָה שְׁמֹנֶה 8
תִּשְׁעָה תְּשַׁע 9
עֲשָׂרָה עֶשֶׂר 10
cardinal numbers 20+
common gender
עֶשְׂרִים 20
שְׁלֹשִׁים 30
אַרְבָּעִים 40
חֲמִשִּׁים 50
שִׁשִּׁים 60
שִׁבְעִים 70
שְׁמֹנִים 80
תִּשְׁעִים 90
מֵאָה 100
אֶלֶף 1000
cardinal numbers
large example
common מָאתַיִם 200
feminine שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת 300
common אַלְפַּיִם 2000
masculine שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים 3000
masculine אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף 24,000
ordinal numbers 1-10
masculine & feminine
רִאשׁוֹן רִאשֹׁנָה 1st
שֵׁנִי שֵׁנִית 2nd
שְׁלִישִׁי שְׁלִישִׁית 3rd
רְבִיעִי רְבִיעִית 4th
חֲמִישִׁי חֲמִישִׁית 5th
שִׁשִּׁי שִׁשִּׁית 6th
שְׁבִיעִי שְׁבִיעִית 7th
שְׁמִינִי שְׁמִינִית 8th
תְּשִׁיעִי תְּשִׁיעִית 9th
עֲשִׂירִי עֲשִׂירִית 10th