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Hebrew—An Introduction to Reading the Old Testament
About this course
Lesson 4: Verbs—stems
Review (step 10 of 10)
Lots of paradigms summarized in a single מְּנוֹרָה

This lesson was packed with paradigms. As previously stated, you are not expected to remember all the details of those paradigms. But you do need to know the general concepts (represented in the מְּנוֹרָה) and typical form identifiers for the seven stems. So take the time to look over these again below, along with the new songs and vocabulary we learned in this lesson.
What we learned this lesson
  1. There are seven stems in Hebrew
    • qal (simple active) יִמְצָא / מָצָא
    • niphal (simple passive) יִמָּצֵא / נִמְצָא
      • perfect adds a נִ prefix
      • imperfect places a middle dot in the first letter of the root
    • piel (intensive active) יְכַפֵּר / כִּפֵּר
      • perfect has a chirik vowel underneath the first letter of the root
      • imperfect has a shva vowel under the form prefix and a petach under the first letter of the root
      • perfect and imperfect place a middle dot in the second letter of the root
    • pual (intensive passive) יְכֻפַּר / כֻּפַּר
      • perfect and imperfect both have a kubutz vowel under the first letter in the root
    • hiphil (causal active) יָבִיא / הֵבִיא
      • perfect adds a ה prefix
      • perfect and imperfect often add י between the second and third letters of the root
    • hophal (causal passive) יוּבָא / הוּבָא
      • perfect adds a ה prefix
      • perfect and imperfect have a וּ or kubutz vowel between the prefixed ה and the first letter of the root
    • hithpael (reflexive) יִתְהַלֵּךְ / הִתְהַלֶּךְ
      • perfect adds a הִתְ prefix
      • imperfect also adds a הִתְ prefix, but the ה gets swapped out for the form prefix
      • the ת in the prefix will trade places with a ס ,ש or צ when it is the first letter of the root
      • if צ is the first letter of the root, the ת becomes a ט
      • if ט or ת is the first letter of the root, it gets swallowed up by the prefixed ת
Christian youth conferences

Jewish-Christian youth do not have it easy in Israel. They face rejection at school, and lack connection with other believers their age since there are often no other believing families in their neighborhood. In addition, the congregations they attend are small and have few other youth to fellowship with. For this reason, several organizations have been raised up by God to provide periodic conferences to strengthen young people in their faith.

(Be sure to turn on closed captions for an English translation.)